Saturday, August 31, 2019
To have a healthy sense of self-esteem is what most parents would want their young children to have. Special emphasis is given to self-esteem because parents know that self- esteem has a powerful effect on communication behavior. Also, many observers believe that at the bottom of the many societal problems lie in low self-esteem. Adler and Towne added that Ã¢â¬Å"people with high self esteem are more willing to communicate that people with low self-esteemÃ¢â¬ (48). Although self-esteem has been studied and scrutinized for many years already, specialists and educators still argue about its nature and development. Even so, they all generally agree that parents and other adults who are important to children play a major role in laying a solid foundation for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. So what or how is self-esteem defined and illustrated in the different social contexts? Self-esteem is said to be a part of self concept that involves evaluations of self worth. The basics of self-esteem laid early in life when infants develop attachments with those who are responsible for them. Babies learn to feel loved and valued when those who look after them readily respond to their cries and smiles. By being loved and accepted by the people they idolize, children come to feel loved and accepted too. Also, parents and teachers can help their children to build healthy self-esteem by teaching good values, expressing appreciation, giving challenges, and coping with defeats. As children become increasingly sensitive to evaluations by their peers, parents and teachers can be very instrumental in fostering positive relationships with the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s peers. You can also help the child by being clear about good values and keeping the communication lines open about experiences outside the home. When adults respond to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s interests and efforts with appreciation rather than just praise, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-worth is more likely to deepen. Imagine this, when your child shows interest in something you are doing, you might want to include the child in the activity. In this manner, you respond positively to your childÃ¢â¬â¢s interest by treating it seriously. On the contrary, flattery and praise can sometimes distract children from the topics they are interested in because children may develop a habit of expressing interest in a subject matter just to receive flattery. Tasks and activities that offer a real challenge than from those that are merely playful or funs are more likely to benefit children from. Involving the children in doing house hold chores will help boost self-esteem because it will give the children a sense of accomplishment. Cutright also put emphasis that rather than emphasizing constant successes and triumphs, parents and teachers can help the child develop and maintain healthy self-esteem by helping him or her cope with defeats. When love and support remain unchanged during times of disappointment or crisis, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s weakened self-esteem can be strengthened when parents or teachers let the child feel that. As a conclusion, parents and teachers can play a significant role in strengthening childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem by treating them respectfully, taking their views and opinions seriously, and expressing appreciation to them. Also, parents must keep in mind that self-esteem is an important part of every childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Reference: Adler, Ronald B. , and Neil Towne. Looking out/looking in interpersonal communication. 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978. Cutright, Melitta. Ã¢â¬Å"Self-esteem: the key to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s success and happiness. Ã¢â¬ PTA Today 17 (1992): 5-6.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Why are you interested in entering this major or field? I am interested for this field because I find it noble and very fascinating. Without the Radiologic Technician, nobody understands the use of x-rays and how it works. This profession would give me the ability to understand more on x-rays and other related and important topics.2. What are your goals after you graduate from Harcum? After I graduate from Harcum, I will immediately practice my profession as Radiologic Technician and serve people who need my service. At the same time, I will educate myself more or have an advance studies which is related to Radiology to update myself about newfangled technology and be a better Radiologic Technician. 3. How can Harcum assist you in attaining your goals?I consider Harcum as a good match for my learning because it is a college that has so much to offer. I strongly believe that the professors and facilities here are well-equipped which are able to assist and cater the needs of the studen ts.One thing that attracts me most in this college is the way the professors teach their students. This is the college too which has close cooperation with the community which serves to the functioning of modern education. We all know that the community needs the school as a positive force for social and economic betterment.There are many problems in the community, such as those relating to health, economic, and social problems, that can be solved by educative process. This college is one agency in the community equipped to lead in the solution of problems.I believe that Harcum College can be useful in promoting and improving community life and conditions and which will enable less fortunate people to live richer, fuller, and better everyday lives, as well as on the development of techniques of their studies.I also believe that this college enhanced my skills, abilities, and attitudes to be more learned and extend it to the community. The university does not only educate the student s academically but it is concerned too with the interaction of human individuals and their environment. In addition, the university is concerned with producing growth or changes in human knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, feelings, morals, and habits of every type.
These actions suggest that human nature can change as someone can be nice towards one thing and then they can be disgusted with that same thing at a different time. Victor gets very friendly with Henry Clerval in the time that they are in Ingolstadt. Henry nurses Victor back to health when he is ill. They came to be in the same college because Henry persuaded his father to let him come to Ingolstadt, but he said that it was hard to persuade as HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s father thought that all the skills that you need in your life are used and gained when you are a book keeper. It is ironic that Henry sees knowledge as a good thing but Victor uses scientific knowledge and turns it into a tragedy, Frankenstein should of followed in Ã¢â¬Ës footsteps as VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s creation turned out to kill Henry. The way that Victor treated his family, is completely different to the way that Henry treated Victor. Victor dumped all of his family life behind him, and only spoke to them through short sharp letters, but Henry cared dearly for Victor and even spent useful time looking after Victor when he was seriously ill, Henry also puts his life on hold just to make him better. I think that the readers of the novel will be ashamed of Victor for abandoning his family and his creation, but also for letting Henry put his life on hold just to make him better. This is a selfish act, and Victor should be more grateful towards Henry and his family. Henry is a very caring man and has a lot of time for people, especially Victor who just takes his skills for granted. HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s kindness is shown throughout, examples of this kindness are; Ã¢â¬ËI did not before remark how very ill you appear; so thin and pale, you look as if you have been watching for many nights. Ã¢â¬Ë, and Ã¢â¬ËI will not mention it, if it agitates you. Ã¢â¬Ë These shows that Henry cares greatly for Victor and that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to upset Victor. This caring manner contrasts with that of VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s when he rejects the monster because of its looks. VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s selfish side is shown throughout the novel, a few examples are; Ã¢â¬ËI had deprived myself of rest and health. I had desired it with and ardour that far exceeded moderation, but now that I have finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heartÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëinfinite painsÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËI felt the bitterness of disappointment. Ã¢â¬Ë These show that again VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s selfish. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about anyone but himself. Victor also uses the personal pronoun, Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢, this states that everything is about him, so this is also a selfish action. Victor keeps his creation a secret, he does not want to tell anyone as he is not yet sure of the outcome of the creature, but after the birth of the creation, he is ashamed of it, he believes that it is a product of hell and that the monster is beyond control and just decides to keep it to himself and lie to other people. This influences the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards Victor in the rest of the novel because the readers may now believe that he can not tell the truth and that the narration of the story may be biased. This relates to the theme of secrecy in the rest of the novel, for example; when he makes a companion for the monster, and also not telling anyone that he knew what killed someone of his family and friends. Mary Shelley suggests that lots of people do keep secrets and do not want to tell anyone. We keep secrets because it will ruin something special, the person is ashamed or embarrassed of it, the person can not confide in anyone, or they just do not want to tell anyone, as it may get someone in trouble. People do keep secrets and usually lie, it may be small lies or it may be a serious lie. People tell lies to put the problem off for as long as they can until they crack, they do this because they think it is an easy option, but in the long run, it is the hardest option as it drags a lot out of your self esteem. The ending of the chapter is a contrast of the rest of the chapter, especially the beginning, the weather and the atmosphere created. In the begging of the chapter the weather is dull, and gloomy. This is shown throughout the opening paragraph. The phrases Ã¢â¬Ëthe rain pattered dismally against the pains,Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdrearyÃ¢â¬â¢ suggest that the weather reflects on the dark atmosphere created by the near birth of the creature, it also suggests that something may happen may happen later on in the chapter. In the ending paragraph, the atmosphere created is completely different. The descriptions show that there is change as it is now light. This is a pleasurable sight for Victor as the weather was so uninviting earlier on in the chapter. The phrase Ã¢â¬Ëyoung buds were shooting forth from trees that shaded my window. It was a divine spring,Ã¢â¬â¢ shows that the darkness has subsided to make way for the light. Also, there was a new beginning for the natural processes, growing of buds etc. There was a non artificial mood in the air as everything that was happening was completely natural, so this is a great contrast to everything that was happening in the first paragraph of the chapter. The word Ã¢â¬ËdivineÃ¢â¬â¢ is connected with heaven, so everything is moving on from VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s deed. It is also to do with God, so it is a contrast between the thought of hell earlier on in the chapter. In the following chapter people may think that Victor tries to accept the monster and is not so selfish towards it and also the rest of his family, because the chapter ends with relief for Victor. The reader, at the end of the chapter, may be wondering where the monster has gone and what the monster is really doing. It may be that they think he has gone to commit another deadly murder. To conclude, this chapter is very vital. In it, there is always something going on. The chapter helps you to see how Victor really is and how he treats people in times of struggle. When, the monster is created, we get the impression that Victor was excited, but then he was ashamed of the outcome. Furthermore, when the monster disappears he felt relieved even though it could still come back. At the time when the monster disappeared, it was like Victor started a whole new life, this showed that he was not really bothered about what would happen if the monster was let loosen the world. From this chapter, we find that when Victor gets engrossed in something, he forgets about the whole world around him and abandons people, like his family. Victor is prone to abandoning things and people in this chapter. For example; he abandons the monster just because of the way it looks, and hurts its feelings, making it commit murders on people close to Victor to get its own back. We find that Victor is to blame for the actions of the monster, and that Victor is very selfish. This is shown when he uses the person pronoun Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢, which shows that he is completely aware of himself and that he does not care much for other people. The secrecy in the novel is constant. Victor is always keeping secrets from his loved ones, whether large or small. The scientific ideas that Victor has are also important, as they bring together the whole story, as he knows man can create life with the correct theories and equipment. The theories that Victor has are going against God as it is an un-natural process, and that the creation will be forever criticized whether it is handsome or ugly. It also sums up how we treat each other in society today. I don not feel the same way as Victor did towards his creation. I think the actual monsters are Victor Frankenstein and M. Waldman these people both tried to create the creature, but Victor got further. They both created an abominable creature. I think some of the concerns in the novel are relevant today because not many people abandon things like children and pets, but the lucky ones get looked after. People also get abused because of the way they look, I think that this is wrong and should be stopped.Ã By Samantha Loader Page 1 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Mary Shelley section.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Scrutinising a company report - Essay Example Certain challenges are also plaguing the industry, and these could have an impact on how corporate social responsibility is implemented; jet fuel prices have doubled over the past decade. Therefore, airlines now need to consider sustainable fuels over the long haul; some organisations are already considering this alternative but are to implement it fully. Low cost airlines are driving up competition because of the need for faster and less costly aviation transport, so bigger organisations need to find a way of adding quality in service provision. Rising customer expectations as many of them have now become more informed through the internet also couples this need. Buyers are demanding more sustainable business from organisations, so aviation stakeholders need to rise to challenge and meet this need (Esty and Winston, 2006). Some entities believe that environmental sustainability is an oxymoron in the aviation/ airline sector because carbon emissions are appallingly high. Some travellers are responding to this fact by using other means of transport, selecting direct flights, or using companies that are the most sustainable. CSR is an important factor for most Britons as they care about how well businesses take care of their environment or their community (Werther & Chandler, 2006). Reporting is expected for several businesses in the UK as the public demands accountability from major service providers like British Airways. BAÃ¢â¬â¢s three core statements on sustainability are: mitigating environmental impact, becoming a responsible employer or business and enriching community livelihoods. In 2013, the company did plenty of things to show how far it is willing to go in the sustainability journey. In business operations, the company introduced seven new Boeing and Airbus planes because they are more efficient and quieter than the conventional models. The firm also wants to reduce
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Growth Hormone in Psychological Processes - Research Paper Example Excessive production of growth hormone gets caused by the growth of a benign tumor in the somatotroph cells. This condition gets referred to an adenoma. A tumor of the islets of Langerhans or the lung which produce Growth hormone-releasing hormone can also stimulate excessive production of growth hormone. The growth hormone interacts with insulin through the IGF axis. The liver secretes insulin like growth factor 1- IGF-1, in response to secretion of the growth hormone (Juul & Jens, 2000). The IGF axis interaction is vital in the inhibition of cell death and promoting cell proliferation. IGF-1 is necessary for achieving maximal growth. Gigantism can get more complicated to treat than dwarfism. This is so because some forms of dwarfism get caused by insufficient production of growth hormone. These forms of dwarfism can become rectified by providing the patient with growth hormone (Artwelle & Vislon, 2008). Gigantism, however, results from the overproduction of growth hormone. This can become hard to correct as it is more difficult to place the excess growth hormone in the required normal range. The metabolic rates in a giant also become hyper abnormal, this contributes to a less life expectancy for giants. The pituitary gland gets located in the brain. It is divided into the anterior and posterior lobe. The pituitary gland secretes prolactin hormone, which stimulates the production of breast milk and the control of menstrual periods (Ho, 2011). Prolactin activates the mammary glands to generate milk. During pregnancy, prolactin concentrations rise causing enlargement of the mammary glands. Also produced in the pituitary gland is the hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin also gets referred to as anti-diuretic hormone. This hormone encourages water retention by the kidneys. This hormone works in the kidneyÃ¢â¬â¢s collecting ducts to stimulate reabsorption of water by the body.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Criminal Justice - Essay Example The agency also provides funding and certain oversight of community supervision (previously known as adult probation) and is responsible for the supervision of offenders released from prison on parole or mandatory supervision. During my visit to the Huntsville Office of the Inspector General, which is situated in Lake Rd. Suite 5, Texas, I have decided to talk to John Moriarty, Inspector General on his role and responsibilities. He is an important actor of TDCJ. A prior meeting was fixed with Mr. Moriarty. I reached in his Huntsville office at the scheduled time. Mr. Moriarty gave me a warm welcome. He heads the Investigation Department, which conducts investigation into the charges of grave bad behavior by employees and criminal breach on the organization property where interests are at risk by any violation. Smuggling of drugs and other goods not permitted in jail premises also comes under the investigation of the Office of Inspector General. Mr. Moriarty: My position of Inspector General is directly answerable to the Chairman, TBCJ, as you can see in the chart behind on the wall. (Mr. Moriarty turned his face towards the wall showing the chart, outlining the organization structure). Mr. Moriarty: Being independent of other departments, the mission of my office reflects its duties in working as a coordinating and communicating bridge between TBCJ, executive management, and investigating charges besides checking compliance with regulations and policies of the TDCJ. It is also our aim to see that the laws of the State of Texas are adhered to by the TBCJ. Other than that, we investigate waste, fraud and abuse of tax dollars in the agency. We are also a part of Joint Home & Defense initiatives of the GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s office and the FBI. Mr. Moriarty: It is wrong to say like that. Our Crime Stoppers Ã¢â¬Å"Behind the WallÃ¢â¬ is a program that covers
Monday, August 26, 2019
Ethics and Stakeholder Management - Essay Example The concept of ethics is very important during the contemporary period in the operations of any given organisation. Socially responsible businesses ought to create a balance between the protection of the interests of the consumers as well as their objectives of making profits. However, the issue of ethics is somehow controversial in that there may be conflicts whereby people may disagree over a certain issue with regards to the right course of action that can be taken. There are mixed feelings over one issue whereby others see nothing wrong about it while others view it as wrong which presents an ethical dilemma to the organisation. As such, an ethical dilemma arises when there is an unresolved interpretation of an ethical issue (Arens, 1996). This is a situation when people have different perceptions over a particular issue. In this particular case, a computer manufacturer decides not to market a new chip that would enable computers to be upgraded. This entails that there is no need for a new computer and this reduces electronic waste. However, this will lead to a reduction in the sales of the computers which means a definite reduction in revenues in the short term. On the other hand, the long-term pay-off is uncertain and this has presented an ethical dilemma to the organisation. In this case, the organisation is finding it difficult to market the new chip though it will benefit the majority of the people at the expense of their need to protect the business interests of the company such as its profitability. In view of this given scenario, it can be noted that to a certain extent, there is no universal agreement of what constitutes good things from bad. Certain incidences sometime arise where people often view the same thing from different perspectives (Hiti, 1999). However, in as far as business is concerned, it can be noted that the main objective is to attain profit goals whereby ethics are at times compromised for financial gains. Theoretically, there are different ethical theories that can be applied to this case but the most ideal is utilitarian ethical theory. According to this theory, Ã¢â¬Å"the choice that yields the greatest benefit to the majority of people is ethically,Ã¢â¬ (Rainbow, 2002). As such, this ethical theory posits to the effect that organisations should encourage the people to work towards the outcomes that will benefit the majority of the people that are affected by the operations of a given organisation. It has to be borne in mind that businesses are concerned with serving their own interests as well as the interests of the stakeholders which should not be compromised for financial gains alone. The right course of action will be to follow the guidelines that will yield benefits to the majority of people not only the concerns of the company alone. The utilitarian theory suggests that the organisation ought to be guided by values as well as principles that will incline it to act in a certain way which makes it different from the other organisations.Ã
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Impact of nationalism on america - Essay Example The actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to attain (or sustain) self-determination (Ã¢â¬Å"What is Nationalism?Ã¢â¬ ). The nationalism brings up questions about the concept of nation which is usually defined in the terms of common ethnicity, origin or cultural ties. While an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s membership in a nation is oftentimes considered as voluntary. It also bring forth questions about whether or not self-determination should be understood as necessitating having complete statehood with complete authority over the domestic and international associations. Nationalism arises from the idea that the nation, in contrast to the nationÃ¢â¬âstate is formant of aboriginal people to an area. It is also the longest-lasting and most prudent government. Nationalism was the most powerful and successful political force of the 19th century which emerged from two main sources which were the Romantic Exaltation of Ã¢â¬ËfeelÃ¢â¬â¢ & Ã¢â¬ËIdentityÃ¢â¬â¢ and the libera l requirement that a legitimate state be based on Ã¢â¬ËpeopleÃ¢â¬â¢ instead of a dynasty e.g. God or imperial supremacy. Both these movements were middle class movements. (Ã¢â¬Å"What is nationalism?Ã¢â¬ ). The pros of nationalism are many. One of the main factors of nationalism is that it sets a sense of unity among the groups of nation no matter with which country it belongs to. It gives a feeling of belonging as people tend to work for the betterment of the state which lets people come together with common interests and achieve their ultimate goals. Nationalism also serves to unite a group of people, enabling them to make economic, political, and social progress. Unluckily however, nationalism has many cons too. It can often cause divergence between various nations, leading to war. When nationalism leads nations towards aggressiveness and certitude it leads nations towards destruction. The cons also include risking isolation from other groups of people who do not share the same land, and not profiting from their capability and goodwill. Over the past 10 years, a new nationalist movement has come into sight and gained huge strength in United States of America. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the new Ã¢â¬Ëwhite nationalistÃ¢â¬â¢ movement which brought the potential to disturb the already frail race relations. Shunning violence, this movement seeks to expand its influence primarily through the persuasion & argument embattled at the white Americans aggrieved over racial double standards, high black-on-white crime rates, and race based affirmative action policies. The new white American nationalism movement has been energized by advocacy of multiculturalism as well. Some of the many names of the white nationalists that we know about today are Don Black, David Duke, Paul Fromm, Norman Lowell, Robert Jay Mathews, Revilo P. Oliver and William Luther Pierce. Due to the emphasis on the group self determination; multiculturism has brought white nationalists with justification f or advocating a corresponding form of white camaraderie. The members of white nationalism are different from the other nationalism groups and are cultured, intelligent and usually hold impressive academic degrees from AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s premier colleges and universities. This new breed of white racial advocate is a far cry from the populist politicians and hooded Klansmen of the Old South who fought the losing combats for separation and white superiority. History has seen many countries suffering from the effects of nationalism; it has brought
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Contemporary Developments in Employment Relations - Coursework Example Labour demand on the other hand, consists of the employers who have a need for work to be done, and who offer compensation for this work to employees who undertake it (ONS 2014). In normal market operations, the market wage in this case would be determined by the intersection between labour demand and labour supply or the equilibrium. However, the government intervenes to control wages thus setting minimum wages below which they are not legally acceptable. The employed are those who are actively engaged in work and comprised 72.7% of the labour force in March 2014 while the unemployed are those not actively engaged in work but are willing and able to work and are actively engaged in search for a job and are of the required age and the unemployment rate for the same period was 6.8% (ONS, 2014). By December 2013, there were 5.5 million people working in the public sector comprising 18.2% of those in employment representing a fall of 159, 000million workers between September and Decembe r 2013. The top three employers included National Health Services (NHS), education and public administration. In order to function properly, the labour market needs to be regulated and this is done through the employment law. These regulations include: national minimum wage; working time; maternity/paternity leave; health and safety; race and/or sex discrimination; information and consultation but for the sake of this paper we will discuss the national minimum wage and working time. According to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) rankings, the UK has the least regulated labour market just next to U.S and Canada. However, the industry is more regulated than in the 1960s when collective employment rights ad use of trade unions in bargaining terms and conditions was the norm. Employment contracts were unheard of, working time was deregulated, minimum wage restricted to a limited number of
Friday, August 23, 2019
Marxist and Funtionalist Perspectives on Inequality of Educational Achievement Due to Social Class - Essay Example At the least, the democratic socialist countries would be expected to have achieved greater educational equality among citizens of distinct class backgrounds. It was found that the Soviet Union has not achieved educational equality to a noticeable extent, based on its characterization as a state capitalist country, deeply divided by class distinctions, and with the state bureaucracy at its core (Liston, 1988). Ramirez (2006) argues that cross-nationally, family background is clearly related to academic achievement; however, there is extensive cross-national variation in the correlation between achievement and aspirations. According to Ream and Palardy (2008), Ã¢â¬Ësocial capitalÃ¢â¬â¢ forms one of the components of social class which includes material and human capital. The researchers examined how parental social networks divided by class increase educational inequality among school children. Further, the authors used survey data to determine whether Ã¢â¬Å"certain forms of pare ntal social capital create educational advantages for socioeconomically privileged students vis-a-vis their less economically fortunate peersÃ¢â¬ (Ream and Palardy, 2008, p.238). Distinguishing between the availability of social capital and its convertibility, while greater extents of parental social capital was found to be concurrent with higher rungs in the social class ladder; the utility value of social capital for education was not clearly related to class status. A possible exception to this tendency could be the collective influence of middle-class parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas on beneficially changing school policies and practices. It is important to investigate whether the economic and sociological reasons for inequality can promote Ã¢â¬Å"educationally useful... As the paper stresses distinguishing between the availability of social capital and its convertibility, while greater extents of parental social capital was found to be concurrent with higher rungs in the social class ladder; the utility value of social capital for education was not clearly related to class status. A possible exception to this tendency could be the collective influence of middle-class parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas on beneficially changing school policies and practices. It is important to investigate whether the economic and sociological reasons for inequality can promote Ã¢â¬Å"educationally useful social exchange among parents across social boundariesÃ¢â¬ . This discussion explores that social justice and equity in connection with higher education is an important area of research towards policy formulation. These concepts help to create a more impartial, courteous, and just society for everyone. This conceptualization focuses on society as a whole; however Ã¢â¬Å"higher education research literature looks inward towards higher education itselfÃ¢â¬ . In the social composition of higher educationÃ¢â¬â¢s staff and student populations, it is found that equity and social justice agendas are imported from the wider society. This approach considers the rules of the competition as unfair if particular social groups are excluded or placed in a disadvantageous position in the competition for higher education. Functionalism is characterised as a set of three interrelatedd theses about the social world.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
External Forces that have brought Cross boarder restructuring in the airline industry - Essay Example The cause of this crisis was the increase in the fuel prices as in the worse economic fiasco faced by many nations across the globe. This led to the falling down in demand of fuel in USA and Britain. Breaking out of Gulf War saw many airlines shutting their business down, among these were the Eastern Airlines -US, British airline Air Europe, Pan American and a few smaller airlines like Midway-US and TEA in Belgium. The end of Gulf War was not any better for any of these airlines. From the worlds top-20 airlines only British Airways, Cathay, SIA (Singapore Airlines) and Swissair made a net surplus in each of the three years 1991-1993. The worst hit was the North-American airlines; on the contrary many Asian airlines functioned beneficially. Many airlines needed huge capitals to survive in those years among them was Air France. The member states of the European Union received US $ 10.4 billion in state aid in the year 1995. This was government support offered following authorization by the European Commission. In 1997, Alitalia was given $ 1.7 billion of state aid. Several Airlines received government funds about $ 1.3 billion that were not classified as state support. Subsequently, in 1994 and the years to follow, with financial prudence a number of airlines returned to stipulate development and gain profits. Generally, this was the time when a boom occurred in the airline business. In addition, 1998 was the most lucrative year ever. (Doganis, 2001) By and large, joblessness in the New York state remains towering, at 7.4 percent, and current statistics illustrate that more or less 40 percent of those laid off subsequent to 9/11 are still jobless. Even though billions of dollars in centralized support have been billed to help the airlines affected by the rebellious assault, removed airline employees have by and large been unsuccessful to profit up
Promoting Change Essay As a way of improving the level of usersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement and making the process an effective one, it becomes necessary that consultative mechanisms that tend to produce feedbacks to users, and the ability to integrate them in every stage of service delivery is put in place. Through their interaction with nurses and the nursing body, users would get to be informed on ways to participate in other to help nurses to deliver effective services. Ã¢â¬Å"Users need to get feedbacks on their participation, but this does not always happen. This can have a bad effect on how people feel about being involved in participation and the difference they can makeÃ¢â¬ (Carr, 2004). Social policy- making have characteristically tended to employ consultative mechanisms to seek greater citizen involvement in generating information for policy formulation. According to Gaventa (1993), the renewed focus on agency in the politics of policy- making offers the scope for recasting the role of citizens in the policy process. Rather than simply the passive recipients of decision made by those who are presumed to know better, participatory approaches redefine Ã¢â¬ËexpertiseÃ¢â¬â¢ in terms that both reveal the realities of power involved and assert the legitimacy of knowledge claims by those on the receiving end of policies. The imbalances of power position between the professionals and administrators of service and the users have been observed to be a basis for the relegation of usersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest to the background. Thus, for an effective mechanism, it then requires that the gap between users and the provider of service be closed down. This can be done when some of these users, who are fit enough, can be trained to become occupiers of the administrative positions for service delivery. Also proper dissemination of information and enlightenment would go a long way in positioning the users and making them know their rights and thus, preventing intimidation and any form of coercion. The importance of proper consultation and feedbacks in usersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement would make the users having a sense of satisfaction and the belief that they are actually being involved in the service delivery process. This will create a sense of belonging and even encourage more participation and reduce the level of relegation and disregards of users voice in the policy outcome and decision-making during service policy formulation and implementation. In Wales, the Joint Review Team argues that new mechanisms are now in place to champion the cause of the users. The emphasis is on a culture of involvement through adequate feedbacks to users enhancing users involvement in service delivery. According to Cornwall Gaventa (1999), one form of greater accountability is through increased dialogue and consultation of core users and their involvement. This raises questions about the extent to which marginalized groups are able to articulate their concerns and about the form that dialogue takes Proper conflict resolution that manages conflicts during usersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement is necessary in bringing about the effective service delivery and users involvement at the long run. Some articulate service users are branded as unrepresentative therefore be in risk of being ignored. Ã¢â¬Å"Service users who articulate the need for changes that agencies may not be willing or able to implement have sometimes being labelled as Ã¢â¬ËunrepresentativeÃ¢â¬ ¦implementing changes that require reallocation of resources becoming more difficult especially if these conflict with nationally defined service prioritiesÃ¢â¬ . Discrepancy between what management want of user involvement and what users want may be a major source of dissatisfaction for service users, since managers definitions tend to prevail. Some reviews note that dissatisfaction and even conflict may be an inevitable part of the user participation process (ibid). Thus, it requires as a proper resolution of areas of differences that they are adequately taken cared of. Those who usually contact the users should be trained and coached on how to interact and listen to their views and opinions in order to ward off any form of conflict breeding. As Carr (2004), puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"the research suggests that front- line practitioners who have most contact with service users could be usefully engaged in user participation strategies and benefit from user- led training focusing on the practice and principles of user participationÃ¢â¬ . The front liner practitioners should be equipped with the knowledge of how to handle complaints when service users forward it to them. CONCLUSION UsersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement in service in the nursing profession has given them the confidence and pride of having a say in the determination and outcome of what is provided to them. However, report has it that some users feel consulted rather than involved and others have a sense of powerlessness as regarding the complex and confused system in which the participation is structured on. While a sense of stereotyping is being carried out in some quarters, where discrimination and marginalization based on race, minority ethnic has hampered the proper participation of some users. Some professionals relegates usersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest, this is mostly done due to the huge lacuna of power positioning between the managers and professionals of service provision and the users. It then requires that a proper mechanism for users involvement be put in place through their understanding of the roles of nursing in the healthcare facility and those ethics governing their profession. Hence, it is advocated that a proper feedback mechanism is available; proper conflict resolution be provided for interest clashÃ¢â¬â¢ the users of service should be integrated into the service provision activities, where they are perceived as getting services as rights and not privileges. REFRENCES Barnes, C. Mercer G. (2003), Ã¢â¬Å"Research review on User Involvement in Promoting Change and Enhancing the Quality of Social care Services for Disabled PeopleÃ¢â¬ Center for Disability Studies University of Leeds. 30 June. http://www. leeds. ac. uk/Ã¢â¬ ¦/archiveuk/Barnes/SCIEuserinvolvement2. pdf (19/01/06) Carr, Sarah (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"Position Paper 3: Has service user participation made a difference to social care services? Ã¢â¬ Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE). March. http://www.participateinhealth.org.au
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Barriers To Translating Scientific Text Complications and difficulties on translating a scientific text A key factor in the success of communication is written documents in a correct translation, and while translating scientific articles or texts this process can become difficult. Truly only scientists who are trained linguists can truly understand the terminology and keep the concepts in context. With the basis of their personal experience as professionals they can easily translate an experiment they have just done. Scientific knowledge is needed to be able to translate a scientific text. Some Scientists though cant write well, and make mistakes in spelling and grammar in their own language which hardens the process. This is why there are master degrees you can take. Its available for the common translator who wants to specialize in translating certain areas of science. And translating certain areas of science, you could find the knowledge gained valuable. You find yourself learning all the time, learning new words and expressions, and learning about new advances in the scientific subject you are studying. But there are also some disadvantages when you translate this kind of text. Like I said before, unless you are a specialized person on the area youre going to have lots of difficulties on translating some scientific texts. And a translator just cant expect that every single text he gets is going to be about the specific area he is specialized on. This is why scientific texts are a very difficult kind of texts to translate and most of the times you have to ask someone specialized on the area to help you with some words or simply to revise the document. Interview An interview was made to a male graduate student from the Translation course. We arranged this interview in order to see how his career as a translator was going. He said that after graduating, the work market was very difficult to get into. There arent a lot of jobs for people who just graduated and dont have any masters degree on any specific area. This student in particular wants to take a masters degree but wanted to start working at the same time. He said that he got his first work opportunity when he was asked to translate a few pages of a childrens book. It wasnt that difficult according to what he said but he said that the kind of texts he wants to translate is scientific texts. However, these require not only a masters degree but also a lot of knowledge on the specific area that you are trying to translate. He mentioned that his plans for the future are to specialize on the chemistry area in order to do translations of books. He wants this because he knows some people who study chemistry and their books are all in English and some of them have some difficulty in understanding what the book refers to. He is therefore aware that, to do this he will have to specialize in that area and get a lot of knowledge of the vocabulary, because scientific vocabulary is most of the time very difficult to understand and translate. When finally asked why he chose this area of translation, he said convincingly that he loves challenges. A masters degree that aims for translations scientific area Specialized translation is the name given to this masters degree that takes place in University of Aveiro and leads translation studies to a specific area of translation: the scientific area, more specifically the health and life sciences area. Started in 2007, this masters degree has 2 years duration, takes place in University of Aveiro in the languages and cultures department, and has a total of 30 slots. This degree is accessible for students with a translation degree or a legal equivalent and other degrees providing knowledge of foreign languages or people with a professional, scientific or scholar recognized by University of Aveiro commission coordinating the masters. It has the purpose of giving the owners of a degree on languages area, especially the ones that graduated in translation, an opportunity of developing their translation skills on the health and life sciences area. Students acquire advanced scientific knowledge and work methods that will allow them to do a quality translation job on the area of expertise. They are also given a deeper knowledge of foreign languages chosen, analysis and investigation skills, and project management competences within the specialized translation area. The formation given by this masters develops and enlarges the competences on the scientific area of translation giving the opportunity to acquire deep knowledge in the area of health and life sciences and also provides the student the tools to be successful at managing and creating projects which will contribute to an improvement of the success in the work market. Requirements to be a scientific translator Translating isnt that simple. It involves a great amount of skills to be a good translator Especially to translate scientific texts. According to London Institute of Linguistics, one should have the following skills: High knowledge on the topics mentioned on the target text to be translated; An imagination capable of describing processes and equipment with a high level of success; A certain level of intelligence which needs to be able to fill missing links in the original text to the target translated language; A sense of discrimination so that the translator can choose the right equivalent term from his source of information; Ability to understand and use concise, precise and clear languages; Experience in translation, especially in the scientific field (in order to be familiar with most of the target vocabulary). Apart from these requirements, nevertheless, people must be aware that there are other things to take into consideration, most importantly the deadlines for deliveries, which means, every skill must be used in order to reach effectiveness in a short period of time. Scientific versus Literary Translation We are about to list some characteristics of scientific against literary translation. In scientific texts we have to limit the meaning of words to its general concept. Scientific content is concerned with horizontal structure of the world while literary content is concerned with vertical structure of the world. So, on one hand we will have a horizontal relation between width and breadth, which testifies merits of scientists and technologists, and on the other hand, we will have a vertical relation between height and depth, which testifies merits of artists and poets. The product of poets is essentially a product of height and depth which has either been brought down or lifted up so as to fit into the width and breadth of life itself acquiring a horizontal dimension; the product of scientists lacks the intuitive complexity and wealth of experience characteristic of poets. Scientists speak within familiar and concrete realities of the everyday life. If they need to move, their movement rarely goes against the accomplishment of new horizons or new perspectives they always remain within the concrete, tangible and objective reality, within the horizontal structure. It is important to add that these dimensions horizontal or vertical are fundamentally dependent on the perceiving reader. Both self-relationship and world-relationship are unified through the symbolic system of identification commonly known as language. Nevertheless, this doesnt mean exactly that these dimensions can be extended during an individuals cultural experience and life-time. The relation of the horizontal and vertical dimensions seems like two extremes, but, when unified they transmit a harmony of opposites. Hence, to span them, it seems so impossible that even a highly-sophisticated computer technology cant achieve such thing. Below, you will find differences between science and literature: Scientific Texts Literary Texts Denotative adequacy. Unbridled connotation. Precision. Vagueness. Reason. Emotion. Truth to particular reality. Truth to the ideal and universal. Generalization. Concretion. Referential meaning. Emotive meaning. Denotation. Connotation. Lexical affixation. Grammatical affixation. Idiomatic expressions are rare. Idiomatic expressions are frequent. Use of abbreviation, acronym, and registers. Very few abbreviations, acronyms, and registers. Standard expressions. Almost all varieties. Use of scientific terminology, specialized items, and formulae. No use of scientific terminology, or formulae. No use of elements of figurative language. Expensive use of figurative language. Difficulties of scientific translations Scientific translations, like every translation, need to be done with maximum attention. If you want to do the best you can, you have to know the basic strategies of translation: You need to know as much as possible about the specific area of the text that youre about to translate. You should search the sites where you can find the full information about the translating area. Sometimes it is better to have some consultation with a specialist on the translating area. Dont translate more than 2 pages per day. Dont try to translate fast because you will have bad results. Only good translators, who have years of practice can do a fast and good job. You should use good translation dictionaries like IATE which have European quality. You have to be critic to yourself and be self-disciplined. In the area of scientific translation you will face problems like the equal word for the translating language. Sometimes you will not be able to translate the word. In this case you should put the original word in Italic and write the meaning in brackets. You should translate the text like if it is the work of your life because if something goes wrong, the responsibilities are all yours. Dont accept a translation assignment just for the pay; be sure you are able to do it. Someone catches you with work in a slipshod manner, people will never ask you to do more. A good scientific translator normally has his own specialization and translates texts with maximum quality only in his area.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Integrative Counselling Using the Skilled Helper Approach The Skilled Helper Approach Outline This paper is about integrative counselling using the skilled helper approach. In this paper we will discuss the theory and application of the integrative model of the skilled helper and components of person centred counselling and solution focus therapy. We will look at this integrative model and the benefits as well as the possible downsides. A case study will then be presented using this integrative model to counsel the client. Introduction Integrative counselling looks at several approaches that have been combined and used within a therapeutic counselling relationship. Coming away from a single counselling approach and combining suited models of counselling, both the counsellor and client reap the benefits of the integrated model (Arkowitz, 1997). Robertson (1970) stated that his Ã¢â¬Ëradical eclecticismÃ¢â¬â¢ bypassed theory. Introduction Gerald Egan Gerald Egan is professor of organisation studies and psychology and programme director for the centre for organisation development (CORD) at the Loyola University of Chicago. Egan developed the skill helper model and in 1975 published the first edition of his book The Skilled Helper , which demonstrateding an eclectic framework for a problem management approach to the counselling process. The Integrative Counsellor There are counsellors that see themselves as being eclectic in their work. It is viewed they are syncretism-using techniques from many models[RZ1]. Eclecticism Ã¢â¬â no or little theoretical rationale[RZ2]. Merely pulling techniques from many models without a sound rationale can only result in syncretistic confusion (Lazarus, 1996, 1996; Lazarus, Beutler, Norcrossk, 1992). Development of Therapy The three main influences on the development are the skills training approaches to counselling, the social influence theory, and behavioural theories of learning and change. Egan sums his approach up as Ã¢â¬ËA conceptual frameworkÃ¢â¬ ¦. to organise borrowed ideas, methods and techniques systematically Ã¢â¬ ¦ and to integrate them into [oneÃ¢â¬â¢s] own theory and practice of helping[RZ3].Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. Theory The skilled helper model is a Tran theoretical approach to integration. The client seeks counselling or assistance when they are experiencing difficulties in coping with problems in his or hertheir lifeves. The Counsellor will find and act on solutions to these problems. This is done by using a problem solving process. The process is demonstrated by using 3 three main stages which originally were titled Exploration, Understanding and Action, and which are now renamed as Present Scenario, Preferred Scenario and Getting There[RZ4]. The Three Stage Model The three stage model consists of three steps within three stages. Egan describes this model as Ã¢â¬Å"A a cognitive map with practical potential, complex enough to make sense of reality and simple enough to use[RZ5].Ã¢â¬ . 1 Present Scenario The client is helped to describe and explore the present Scenario[RZ6]Ã¢â¬â¢, she is going through at present 2The Preferred Scenario Articulate a preferred scenario that includes future goals aAnd objectives. 3Getting There Develop and implement action strategies forrom moving from the current to preferred scenario. The Skilled Helper Model is integrative, going mainly through three stages:. Person centered, to establish the therapeutic relationship;, Gestalt, for intense work on awareness; and behaviour therapy to work on change. Egan states Ã¢â¬Ëdo whatever is ethical and works.Ã¢â¬â¢ (1990:62). (Robertson (1979) stated that his Ã¢â¬Ëradical eclecticismÃ¢â¬â¢ bypassed theory. The writer[RZ7] argues that theory is evident within the approach as it is influenced by strong theoretical approaches integrated into the skilled helper. Dr Carl Rogers argues that Ã¢â¬Å"It is the client who knows what is hurting and in the final analysis it is the client who knows how to move forewardords ..Ã¢â¬ ¦. the counsellorÃ¢â¬â¢s task is to enable the client to make contact with his own inner resources rather than to guide, advise or in some other way influence the direction the client should take Ã¢â¬ ¦. Thus thus emphasising the central importance of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s phenomenological worldÃ¢â¬ . (Mearns Thorne, 1988, P1). The three stage model is a systematic way of learning to work with clients helping them to cope more effectively with their life,. tTo manage their problems in living more effectively and develop unused opportunities more fully, and to help people become better at helping themselves in their everyday lives. (Egan G., The Skilled Helper, 1998, pp. 7-8). Using the approach counsellors are able to explore the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, thinking and behaviour. In stages one and two, clients are helped to explore and understand themselves their feelings and their world better, and in a different light. In stage 3 three, clients are helped to take effective action to achieve constructive change. Assumptions of the Model Some counsellors see the skilled helper model as being basic counselling and a paradigm that is made more complicated than necessary. Egan is slightly contrary about human nature[RZ8] Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Egan and Cowan 1979[RZ9] Egan and Cowan 1979, 1980: Egan, 1984[RZ10] The focus of the skilled helper model is concentratesd on the client, with the aid of counsellor, in enabling the client to develop new skills of self management, interpersonal communication, and decision making. The counsellor and client wWorking together on strategies to bring about change, and they. examine Looking at what the client would like to change or manage differently. Psychological Health The heart of the problem solving process is the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s action itself (Egan, (1975:227). This is achievable by enabling the client to tell his or her storey. The skilled helper model is one that sees the potential of change to take place in clients (Inskipp, 1993:92), w. Where the client shi8fts their behaviour from unhealthy to healthy to juvinate[RZ11] positive change. Change comes about through action Ã¢â¬Å"The heart of the problem-solving process is the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ action itself (Egan, 1975:2227[RZ12]). This is by way of the client letting go[RZ13]. Change begins to take place when the client is given space to tell his or her their storey. In telling of the storey, the resources for change areis identified and used. Client The client is helped to reframe by seeing the story and, situations in a different light, seeing him or heerself as a survivor rather than a victim. However, simply Just wanting change to take place is not sufficient. The cClient must be active in the process of change by way of adapting his or her behaviour through action, reflection and new learning. Ã¢â¬Å"Constructive change is always the bottom line.Ã¢â¬ (Egan 1990:207). Practice and clinical issues The counsellor has to be effective in the way the approach is used. Ã¢â¬ËHelpers are successful to the degree that their clients Ã¢â¬â because of client helper interactions Ã¢â¬â are in a better position to manage specific problem situations and develop specific unused resources and opportunities more effectively.Ã¢â¬ (Egan, 1998:7). The role of the counsellor is to assist the client in understanding his or hertheir storey and /problem, and assist with skills that will aid their client in being effective in the management of particular challenging situations. The gGoals of the counsellor in the relationship are to build and empathic alliance;, to assist;, identify;, support; and to evaluate. CounsellorÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the Model Understand and confidence of the 3 stage model with a willingness to adjust to accommodate the clients needs[RZ14]. Counsellor works with the client in the here and now. Some of the skills used would be their natural internal supervisor and , attending skills, through awareness and use of the mnemonic SOLAR (squarely, open, learn, eye, relaxed). For non verbal communication, using the model as a template for change, the counsellor worksing therapeutically at the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s pace using assessment skills, identifying if the degree of difficulty experienced by the client gets in the way of achieving change in mood and relationships. Making a contract with client, focusses of the work, nature and frequency of contact, confidentiality and possible limitations of it, review and evaluation[RZ15]. Evaluation is ongoing through sessions as this helps identify what is /or is not helpful during the session. Use of skill Ã¢â¬â through communication The counsellor engages with the client attending[RZ16], active listening, establishing and conveying empathy and the use of probes and questioning, immediacy, and appropriate self disclosure to client. Brain storming is a cognitive way of helping client to look at new perspectives on situations. Brainstorming generates hope that this[RZ17] can be different Ã¢â¬â this helps client to move foreward into working creatively. The cCounsellor can engage with the client using a variety of different skills, such as . Prompting : what do you really want for yourself in this situation, miracle Miracle Ququestion Ã¢â¬â brief therapy, Blank wall visualisation Ã¢â¬â NLP (DeShezer, 1988; OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and McDermott, 1996)0. Goal setting and reviewing helps client to see hopes as goals that are SMART[RZ18], specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-limited. Change Process Egan takes his process of change from the behavioural approach (Wopolfe et al., 1989:11). Seeing behavioural change over cognitive change[RZ19]. The counsellor uses empathy to form a strong working alliance with the client through the exploration of feelings. The exploration of feelings plays the main part in effecting for change to take place. Within an article about change showedOne source identifies three3 agents for change: stated affective experiencing, cognitive mastery and behavioural regulation (Karasu 1986:690). [RZ20] These three3 agents play a major part in the skilled helper approach for change to take place. Nature of therapeutic relationship Egan sees that the therapeutic relationship is instrumental in the counselling process. Working to achieve goals within specific time restrains the counsellor takes on the role of[RZ21] . Ã¢â¬ËA relationship of service, not an end in itselfÃ¢â¬â¢ (Egan 1990:57). Whereby Rogers argues that the therapeutic relationship is fundamental in the counselling process[RZ22]. As part of the skilled helper approach, Egan incorporated RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ core conditions. Egan describes himself as Ã¢â¬Ëstanding on Rogers shoulders[RZ23],Ã¢â¬â¢ owing much to him as the core conditions is a major part of the approach. Rogers, on the other hand, concentrates on the person as a whole human-being. There are many differences between the two approaches (see Table 9.1). Format of a typical session Each session is different as there are is no set format. Tthe process depends on where the client is with the process of change. Indications and contraindications This approach is similar to the cognitive and behavioural approaches. The model is only beneficial for clients with mild to moderate conditions. The approaches concentrates itself onwith the client having the motivation to change and test out feelings and perceptions in a new framework. The model can be used with most clients and situations including depression ()Mynors-Wallis et al., 1995; Sseeley et al., 1996), and working with young people (Mabey and Sorensen, 1995). The model is described as being eclectic (Inskipp and Johns, 1984). Weakness of Model The model can be iInflexible, not suitable for clients with deep roouted problems, and there is little research to verify its efficacy[RZ24]. Although the problem management programme is beneficial, it may have to be modified to fit some cultures. Obstacles to Integration Within Tthe development and usage of an integrative mode,l as opposed to a single model, has its drawbacks and possible pitfalls. Hastily combining counselling models on a at whim just because the models separately are pleasing does not necessarily not lend itself to necessarily be combined successful combinationly into an integrated model. No one theory or model can testify that it ey holds athe patent off the truth. No one single model or set of techniques have or can always be effective with diverse clients. Nonetheless, tThere is a current trend, as the basis for future counselling practices; writers are developing integrative approaches (Lazarus, 1996[RZ25]). Some models of counselling integration are The Skilled Helper Model, Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT) and the Conversational Model. There are times, however (dependent on the client) when a single established integrative model may be used. For the purpose of this essay an example of the Skilled Helper model will be the main integrative model. Case Study Introduction This case study looks at the use of the skilled helper model with Lisa, a 16 year old college student on a one year foundation course. Her problem is that she finds herself more and more angry. Every week there is an aggressive situation at college between Lisa and her peers or with members of the college staff. She has been officially warned twice and is in great jeopardy of being thrown off her course and out of college. Throughout many of her comprehensive school life she has been expelled from several schools because of her behaviour. It was recommended by the Student Support Manager that Lisa attend some sessions of counselling to Ã¢â¬Å"get herself sorted out[RZ26]Ã¢â¬ . This was an option recommended to herim as an alternative to expelling her.expulsion. Theory Ã¢â¬Å"Helping relationships are influenced by whether the helper is a trained counsellor or is using counselling skills as part of performing another role. Helping relationships takes place in the head and in the heart, as well as face to face. Ultimately all helping relationships need to become client self helping relationships.Ã¢â¬ (Nelson-Jones, 1999, P.118) Stage one looks at the problems, issues, concerns, and undeveloped opportunities for Lisa. Lisa agreed to attend counselling;, this was not a new experience for her. She had previously received counselling and anger management several times and stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Tthey donÃ¢â¬â¢t work.Ã¢â¬ . Assessment and Contracting took place during the first session. Lisa was listened to, enabling her to tell her storey of what brought her to counselling and the lead up to it. During the session, probing was used to discover that Lisa felt alone even though it appeared she had many friends. She was the leader of her girl gang. Ã¢â¬Å"Not real friends, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know me. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re only with me because I fight for them. Some of them are bigger than me.Ã¢â¬ . She felt unloved by her mother because there was no discipline and they only encouragement given was for her to stand up for herself. Her dad has spent years in and out of prison. Lisa felt ugly and was often told that she wasso. She dressed in boysÃ¢â¬â¢ clothes and kept her strawberry blond hair (which almost reached halfway down her back) secured with an elastic band. She had an older sister who was 20, who had changed her religion and was preparing to marry within into a Muslim family. Lisa had two younger brot hers that seemed to get away with ruling the household with their demands. Lisa proudly carried a small photograph around with her of her deceased sister, the only person she really felt loved by, and the only one she loved. With more gentle probing, it became apparent that her sister died as a baby two years before Lisa was born[RZ27]. Her past time is spent hanging out with her friends and at times purposely causing trouble. She left school with no formal qualifications, and therefore was placed on a foundation course which she found did not hold her attention as she got through her work quickly. and so Aas she could move foreward, Lisa found she was helping other students in the class with their work[RZ28]. Lisa is asked Ã¢â¬Å"what do you really want for yourself in this situation?Ã¢â¬ Brainstorming technique is used to look at course and career options. Lisa looks into the future of how she would love to be an accountant as she is very good at maths, or even an actress[RZ29]. In the past she had thought that someone like her would not have the opportunity to do either, but she was happy to look at moving foreward. A mental list was used for the client to come up with some of the things she would like to change. She realises that she is on the wrong course and comes to know that by accepting support from the educational guidance worker and Foundation studies manager she may be able to change her course to one that will be pitched at a higher level to do business studies and accounts. She also realises if she had toned her behaviour down at school for the last few weeks before the end of term, she would not have been expelled[RZ30] and would have done her exams at school rather than giving up her 9 GCSEÃ¢â¬â¢s even though an alternative school was offered for her to take her exams. Her estimated grades were mainly BÃ¢â¬â¢s and CÃ¢â¬â¢s. 3 sessions Ã¢â¬â Llisa seems agitated, feeling she has to no choice but to come. Ã¢â¬â options given[RZ31]. Fears of exclusion, no qwualifications, failure[RZ32] The counsellor gave aAssurances that given everything is confidential with the exception of disclosures to child protection agencies, or in the case of imminent harm to self and others. The counsellor also eExplained counselling is not a prescription; n, she not does not have to come, the decision will be hers, no implications with or from college staff[RZ33]. By telling her storey at the place[RZ34] she has more insight into the issues she faced. She sees herself as helpful, hardworking and a good communicator. The model of the skilled helper is explained more fully to clients Part of the process within the model used. Learnt basic features of model for focus, direction, guidance interactions with peears[RZ35]. Stage 1 Ã¢â¬â Step 1 Tthe storey Client tells her storey which is facilitated by me using probes;, this encourages the client to offer detailed information about herself. This enables client to understand her situation, so as she can look at what needs to be done to manage it. Goal setting Ã¢â¬â What do I really want? Step 1b Ã¢â¬â Blind spot Lisa is helped to identify signifcicant blind spots about herself so as she can develop new perspectives in moving foreward. This is used to break through areas that prevent Llisa from seeing herself and her situation[RZ36]. Step 1c Cchoosing right problem to work onn. Lisa has many problems, I hHelped her work on problems that will make a substantial difference in her life. The client is encouraged and supported in working on her problems. The questions[RZ37] help Llisa to look into her future. Lisa discovers there are many things she wants; there is a , right course for her, one that she is interested in and can enjoy. She can enjoy bBetter relationships with peers and staff. She can enjoy tTime for herself and her mom. Lisa was fFurther encouraged to look at needs and prioritise them. Overall she needs to feel she is achieving academically, making progress in relationships with family, and she would like to change her image Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"be a girly girl.Ã¢â¬ . Setting priorities help her to think about how she might achieve them. I then helped her to explore and clarify her priorities. Tthis is done by asking her how would she know she is achieving, what would it look like. The type of course is then explored in the areas of accountancy and performing arts and which one would be more suitable for her needs and wants, and by. looking at which one is more practicael and achievable. Stage 3 Developing action strategies . At the beginning of counselling, mentoring support group work was offered to Lisa. This service was offered again to client[RZ38]. She breaks through some blind spots, getting a better understanding of and prioriitising her needs, as well as. eExploring what she needs to do to get what she wants. Lisa talks more about her hoped for ambitions prioritising accountancy, making contact with the college guidance worker to see what she would need to get onto a course. On being an actress, it was decided by the client that she would need to attend sage school or the performing arts course at college. We explored each profession, looking at pay, reliability, enjoyability, the possibility that it would possibly help form good character, as well as career endurance. Accountancy took priority, coming out on top in LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation. This also linked into the fact that the client enjoys and excels in maths and has experienced accounts at school., Armed with this information, the client c ontacted her personal tutor and foundations manager. She put her case forward to them them both to be able to be transferred onto an accountancy or business studies course with administration. Giving the client space to do this contributed to her empowerment. The mentoring group consisted of eight 8 students, 16 Ã¢â¬â 18 years of age. This gave students a safe place to explore her feelings about her relationships and her body image. She Lisa bravely asked Ã¢â¬Å"Ddo your moms help you with your hair and make Ã¢â¬âup? Ttalk to you about boys?Ã¢â¬ The questions generated much conversing over two sessions. As a result of the group, work the hair, beauty and holistic therapy departments were approached. Client wanted to be a Ã¢â¬Å"gfirly girl,Ã¢â¬ which meant she wanted help in knowing how to style her hair, and to apply put make-up on. Sessions for a course of holistic therapy to help with stress were arranged;. these therapies helped her to physically see herself in comparison to whathow she had imagined within her own mind. By being a valued member of the weekly group, the client found she was able to receive support as well as give it, leaving her feeling empowered. Being action[RZ39] in her therapy has allowed her to concentrate on her course, career prospects, and image, which leads to improved personal conduct, relationship with peers, members of staff and mother, thereby. rReducing the anger and sometimes hate she felt for herself and resentment towards her mother. Client Lisa eventually moves out of the group, as she feels less angry and stressed. Although client she may have benefited from staying for one or two more sessions, the end of session evaluation was that the client felt that she had sufficiently improved and wanted to withdraw; therefore the helping process had served its purpose (. Waehler and Lenox (1994)). Therefore Hher relationships are more productive and enjoyable; she is. feeling better about herself as she knows some of the feelingss and views of her peers as they saw her . hHow she was and how she can be. by way of a connextios[RZ40] worker client is being helped to communication her needs to her mother taki
Monday, August 19, 2019
Is global warming a hoax? Anyone who listens to the news for sure very often comes across a news anchor stating how the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate is changing. Global warming is a term that creates fear among many. But with all the open and uncensored media out there how do we know that this is not a lie or cover-up? So what does global warming actually mean and is it really true? If global warming is such a big deal why are we taking our time to act? The climate of the Earth has been changing way before the industrialization era began; way before we started to dig up fossil fuel, burn it and put carbon into the air. So if this has been happening for a long time, what is the huge fuss about it? Many believe this is just a fuss. Looking at the financial perspective, many beneficiaries have popped up due to the investment in green-friendly materials. One of the notable people who made sky rocketing financial gains after his investment within the green-industry riches is Al Gore, an American politician, advocate and philanthropist, who was the 45th Vice President of the United States, under President Bill Clinton. Larry Bell states: In 2004, Gore co-founded London-based Generation Investment Management (GIM) with Senator FeinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, former Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Managing Director David Blood to invest money in businesses that were Ã¢â¬Å"going greenÃ¢â¬ . Public filings show that GIM raised profits of nearly $218 million between 2008 and 2011, split among 26 partners. By 2008 Gore was able to put together $35 million into hedge funds and private partnerships through Capricorn Investment Group, a Palo Alto company founded by his Canadian billionaire buddy Jeffrey Skoll, the first president of EBay Inc (Bell). One main blow comes from the co... ...ources Defense Council (NRDC), Ã¢â¬Å"Four global warming impacts aloneÃ¢â¬âhurricane damage, real estate losses, energy costs, and water costsÃ¢â¬âwill come with a price tag of 1.8 percent of U.S. GDP, or almost $1.9 trillion annually (in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s dollars) by 2100Ã¢â¬ (Akerman 4). Climate change or global warming is neither todayÃ¢â¬â¢s nor tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s problem. It is a long term problem that has been affecting us, is affecting us, and at an even much higher rate will affect us. Works Cited Ackerman, Frank, and Elizabeth A. Station. Ã¢â¬Å"The cost of Climate Change: What WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll Pay if Global Warming Continues Unchecked.Ã¢â¬ nrdc.org. Natural Resources Defense Council, May 2008. Web. 26 April 2014. Bell, Larry. Ã¢â¬Å"The Greening of GoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Bank Account.Ã¢â¬ Forbes. 21 May 2013. Web. 25 April 2014. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Future Climate Change. Epa.gov. n.d. Web. 25 April 2014.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Choices Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien was drafted to the Vietnam War. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go to the war. So he went to the northern woods in the northern Minnesota. He had to make a choice whether to go to the war or not to go to the war. After spending six days with guy Elroy he decides to go. Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien went to the war for the wrong reasons. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even think that there should be a war. He saw no reason at all why they should be fighting. He says Ã¢â¬Å"I was drafted to a war I hated... [I was] politically naive, but even so the American war in Vietnam seemed to me wrong. Certain blood shed for uncertain reason. Ã¢â¬Å"He hated this war and had so many questions about it. he says Ã¢â¬Å" It was my view then, and still is that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t make a war without knowing why.Ã¢â¬ he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in it and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know why we were fighting so why should he go to a war. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go to war. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t made for war. He even says , Ã¢â¬Å"I was no solider. I hated dirt and tents and mosquitoes. The sight of blood made me queasy.......Ã¢â¬ Now come on he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even like anything to do with outdoors what good would he even do for our country. He minds well stay home and go to school. He was too young and had too much to lose. He even got a scholarship to a good school. Ã¢â¬Å"... I had the world dicked - Phi Beta Kappa and Summa Cum Laude and president of the student body and a full ride scholarship for grad studies at Harvard.Ã¢â¬ It must have been a mistake cause I was too young. Ã¢â¬Å" a month after graduating from Macalester college. I was drafted to fight a war I hated. I was twenty-one years old, young, yes.Ã¢â¬ Way too young to go to war. He was too embarrassed not to go. He was afraid to be laughed out of town. Ã¢â¬Å" ... and it was easy to imagine people sitting around a table down at the old Gobbler Cafe on Mainstreet, coffee cups poised, the conversation slowly zeroing in on the young OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien kid, how the damned sissy had taken off for Cananda.Ã¢â¬ Now think about those reasons arenÃ¢â¬â¢t very good for going to fight for our country.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Roxanne Koprowski March 18, 2013 IB605 Teamlease: Putting India to Work Legally 1. ) Growth is extremely important for TeamLeaseÃ¢â¬â¢s future, especially since their business model was to Ã¢â¬Å"grow so fast that no one can shut you down. Ã¢â¬ They also wanted to create a people supply chain as well as becoming IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest employer. With those goals in mind, their ultimate achievement is to grow substantially.In order to remain IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest employer, they had to keep up with the explosive growth and competition in the telecommunications, financial services, and retail sectors. 2. ) Going forward, TeamLease has faced a few challenges along the road. First, TeamLease decided to move from a decentralized to a centralized structure for operations, causing fear and resistance from clients who were afraid of the loss of personalized services and fear from TeamLease employees who disliked the idea of relocating.TeamLease also had a difficult time filling open posi tions. Many people were registered with the government-run employment exchanges and many of these people were not fully qualified for the job. TeamLease also tried to partner with training companies but there was no training company that would accept their concept of paying for their services only after their trainee has been placed with a job. They also took a big hit during the 2009 recession causing the open job market to drop dramatically and as well as a decrease in client support. . ) The competitors that worry me the most are Addeco and Randstad. Addeco seems to be the largest HR staffing service company followed by Randstad. Addeco is a major threat with over 33,000 employees and 5,500 branches, in over 60 countries. Randstad has 28,700 employees, 3,500 branches, in over 40 countries. TeamLease on the other hand has 75,000 employees in 600 branches. TeamLease may have more employees, but Randstad and Adecco seems to have more qualified employees and are more spread out world wide.TeamLeast has the least amount of branches among its top competitors. 4. ) I believe that TeamLease should put more money into staffing and training in order to have more suitable and a more experienced staff in order to maintain competitive advantage. They should also try to increase or spread out more of their branches to other countries. TeamLease should also put more effort into marketing and their advertising campaign. Last, they should consider offering employee incentives such as days off or bonusesÃ¢â¬â¢.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Describe the Green Belt Movement founded by Wangari Maathai Q)The Green Belt Movement is a movement that organizes poor women in rural Kenya to plant and protect millions of trees in order to combat deforestation. A)Distinguish among an old-growth forest, a second growth forest, and a tree plantation Q)An old-growth forest is an uncut or regenerated forest that has not been seriously disturbed by human activities or natural disasters for several hundred years or more. Second growth forests are stands of trees resulting from secondary ecological succession.A tree plantation is a managed forest containing only one or two species of trees that are all of the same ages. Q)What major ecological and economic benefits do forests provide? A)Forests, through photosynthesis remove C02 from the air and convert it into oxygen. Traditional medicines used by 80% of the world's population are derived mostly from plant species that are native to forests. Q)Describe the efforts of scientists and econ omists to put a price tag on the major ecological services provided by forests and other ecosystems.A)Scientist have attempted to put a price tag on the major ecological services by determining the alue of each depending on our usage of it. They arrived at an estimated $33. 2 Trillion dollars per year. 3Q)Describe the harm caused by building roads into previously inaccessible forests. A)Building roads in these once untouched areas of forest result in, increased erosion and sediment runoff into waterways, habitat fragmentation, and loss of biodiversity. Q)Distinguish among selective cutting, clear-cutting, and strip cutting in the harvesting of trees.A)Selective cutting is when intermediate-aged or mature trees in a forest are cut singly or in small groups. Clear-cutting is when loggers remove all rees in a certain area. Strip cutting is when loggers clear cut a strip of trees along the on contour of the land within a corridor narrow enough to allow natural forest regeneration within a few years. Q)What are the major advantages and disadvantages of clear-cutting forests? A)Some advantages of clear-cutting include higher timber yields, maximum profits in shortest time, can reforest with fast growing trees, and is good for tree species needing full or moderate sunlight.Some disadvantages of clear cutting include, the reduction of biodiversity, destruction and fragmentation of wildlife habitats, and increase in water ollution, flooding, and erosion on steep slopes, as well as the elimination of most recreational value. Q)What are two types of forest fires? A)Two types of forest fires are surface fires and crown fires. Q)What are some ecological benefits of occasional surface fires? A)The benefit of surface fires is that it burns up leaf litter, clearing the way for other plants to grow in that area. Q)What are four ways to reduce the harmful impacts of diseases and insects on forests?A)Four ways to reduce the harmful impacts of diseases and insects on forests is t o ban imported timber, remove or clear cut infected forests, develop trees that are enetically resistant to common tree diseases, as well as apply conventional pesticides. Q)What effects might projected climate change have on forests? A)The projected climate change could result in trees such as the maple tree dying, for they need cold weather in order to produce their sap. 4Q)What is deforestation and what parts of the world are experiencing the greatest forest losses?A)Deforestation is the temporary or permanent removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture, settlements, or other uses. This is being used in less-developed countries, such as Latin America, Indonesia, and Africa. Q)List some major harmful environmental effects of deforestation. A)Deforestation harms the environment through the loss of biodiversity as well as the loss of C02 absorption. Q)Describe the encouraging news about deforestation in the United States. A)The U. S. Ã¢â¬Ës forests are steadily re-growing, occupying more land than they did in the 1920's Q)How serious is tropical deforestation?A)Tropical deforestation is very serious because they hold more than half of the world's known species and also absorb the most C02 from the atmosphere. Q)What are the major underlying and direct causes of tropical deforestation? A)The major underlying and direct causes of tropical deforestation are farming and settlement. 5Q)Describe four ways to manage forests more sustainably. A)ldentify and protect forest areas with high biodiversity, rely more on selective cutting and strip cutting, stop clear-cutting steep slopes, as well as stop logging in old-growth forests.Q)What is certitle m e A)CertifIed timber is timber cut using environmentally sound practices. Q)What are four ways to reduce the harm to forests and to people caused by forest fires? A)Set small contained fires to remove flammable small tress and underbrush, llow some fires to burn no public land, protect houses and other buildings i n fire- prone areas, and thin forest areas vulnerable to fire. Q)What is a prescribed fire? A)A prescribed fire is one that is carefully monitored and planned. Q)What are three ways to reduce the need to harvest trees?A)lmprove the efficiency of wood use, non-tree fibers, and not using trees as fuel for fires. Q)Describe the fuelwood crisis and list three ways to reduce it severity. A)About half of the wood harvested globally each year, and three-fourths of the wood harvested in less-developed countries, is used for fuel. To reduce the severity is to establish small lantations of fast-growing fuelwood trees and shrubs, switch to burning garden plant wastes, and the use of stoves and running methane. Q)What are five ways to protect tropical forests and use them more sustainably?A)We can protect the forests and use them more sustainably by protecting large areas of forest, initiating debt-for-nature swaps, provision of assistance to neighboring farmers, paying companies to keep these forests active, and individuals planting trees. Q)6. ) Distinguish between rangelands and pastures. A)A rangeland is an unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that upply forage, whereas pastures are fenced meadows usually planted with domesticated grasses or other forge crops Q)What is overgrazing and what are its harmful environmental effects?A)Overgrazing occurs when too many animals graze for too long, which damages the grasses, eventually turning the area into an almost desert. Q)Describe efforts to reduce overgrazing in the Malpai Borderlands. A)These efforts are the restoration of natural grasslands and making sure not too many animals graze at one time. Q)What are three ways to reduce overgrazing and use rangelands more sustainably? A)Fencing off overgrazed areas until they can regenerate, rangeland management, and replanting severely degraded areas with a native grass.Q)Describe the contlict among ranching, biodiversity protection, and urban development in th e American West. A)Each group wants something that will make the other impossible, ranching for food, biodiversity protection to save the earth, and urban development for people to have places to live. Q)What major environmental threats affect national parks in the world and in the United States? A)The parks are too small to sustain many large animal species, as well s people coming into parks in search for food, wood, cropland, and other natural products.Q)How could national parks in the United States be used more sustainably? A)These parks could be used more sustainably by keeping them away from urban areas, not allowing polluting vehicles, and not destroying areas of it to create paths. Q)Describe some of the ecological effects of reintroducing the gray wolf to Yellowstone National Park in the United States. A)By reintroducing gray wolves into Yellowstone, the populations of the wolfs natural prey declined, setting things back into natural order.Q)What percentage of the world's l and has been set aside and protected as nature reserves, and what percentage do conservation biologists believe should be protected? About 13% is protected, but at least 20% should be set aside. 8Q)How should nature reserves be designed and connected? A)These reserves should be designed in such a way that they have a buffer zone between them and human life, so that they get the full effect of the protection, and connected to create large areas of protected land, increasing biodiversity.Q)Describe what Costa Rica has done to establish nature reserves. A)Costa Rica has ivided much of its land into megareserves, saving much of the forests, as well as creating a large economy based around tourism and ecotourism. Q)What is wilderness and why is it important? A)Wilderness is land officially designated as an area where natural communities have not been seriously disturbed by humans and where human activities are limited by law. It is important because they contain much of the world's speci es.Q)Describe the controversy over protecting wilderness in the United States. A)This controversy is to protect forests or to develop the land for our own purposes. Q)Describe a four-point strategy for protecting ecosystems. A)This four-point system includes the mapping of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, locating and protecting most endangered ecosystems and species, seeking to restore degraded ecosystems, and making development biodiversity-friendly. a s a biodiversity hotspot and why is it important to protect such areas?
For the project of redesigning packing for the Canadian market, quantitative risk assessment plays an important role. Quantitative risk assessment is, Ã¢â¬Å"A process for assigning a numeric value to the probability of loss based on known risks and available, objective dataÃ¢â¬ ¦ used to determine potential direct and indirect costs to the company based on values assigned to company assets and their exposure to riskÃ¢â¬ (InvestorWords.com, 2014). For this particular project, quantitative risk assessment will be useful in determining not only which are areas of potential risk, but also to what degree these risks may affect the overall integrity of the project. Revised Project Background The project of the redesign of packaging for the Canadian market currently consists of four different product lines including Dial, Tone, Right Guard, and Dry Idea, and consists of over 50 variants spanning the four lines. Each new packaging design is independent of every other thus there exists no interdependency from design to the next. Each design observes a similar path consisting of initial review of changes, alterations, and additions by management, marketing, and the design team, initial layout of established changes by the design team followed by a first round review of changes by marketing, legal, management and compliance. If additional changes are required, a second round of design and review is implemented up to two additional rounds as needed. Upon successful acknowledgement of new designs, the artwork is then sent to our preproduction team for development to printer-ready artwork. Once completed, the artwork is sent to a third party production house for mockups to be created to be sent to the parentÃ company in Germany for final approval. If any designs are rejected (and they never are), commentary from Germany is implemented into further redesign and the process is restarted. Upon approval from Germany, artwork is submitted to the printer. Printer will then submit print-ready, color-calibrated proofs for final approval. Proofs are reviewed by management for final approval before actual printing. Once printed, packaging is sent to a fulfillment house to have labels applied to containers and filled with product or have wraps applied to soap bars. Upon completion of fulfillment, finished product is shipped to various holding facilities in Canada for final disposition. As previously stated, project will span eight months from inception to final delivery. Risk Identification Framework Management Delays: As the majority of the work for this project involves objective changes and adjustments to existing packaging, the first phase, initial review by management, involves nominal risk. Management will evaluate and select which products will receive updated treatment for inclusion into the Canadian market. Once the products are selected, management has no further involvement outside of potential cancellations of various packaging designs or their requested involvement during a particular phase of completion. Design Delays: As this project includes approximately 50 variants of packaging including labels and wraps, production must be coordinated to allow for enough time for completion of initial layouts and any necessary revisions, while taking into consideration the design needs and time constrains on the design team from other departments and for other projects running concurrently. While the project has a timeline of eight months, final design layouts must be approved and ready for preproduction within the first four months of the project. The in-house design team will complete the bulk of the design phase of the project, though external design agencies may be utilized if time constraints are threatened. It should be noted that the use of external design agencies would incur additional costs. Also, the design process will require an initial review before being released to the review team for official review, to ensure all parameters have been incorporated. Review Delays: This area constitutes the bulk of all potential delays. While each packaging component is independent of oneÃ another, the review process for each component must be completed sequentially among the review team. There are five departments that will review each design layout and either approve or denote changes. Some of these potential changes are subject to additional changes or cancellations by other departments, meaning the first team may indicate several changes that the third team can then override if the indicated changes are deemed unnecessary. Also, the number of rounds of review may add potential delays to the overall project. Another potential area of delay exists with the timely completion of review by the required departments. Certain key staff may be unavailable to review a packaging design during a given time period. To circumvent potential risks, each member of the review staff will have two alternative staff members capable of reviewing each package design. Should no staff members be available to review, the particular review component is submitted to the manager of the appropriate department for their review. This becomes a last-resort scenario in that traditionally, managers indicate changes that exist outside the scope of the project. Review delays present unique difficulties in that not every team member provides feedback as to their daily availability. Pre-Production and Printing Delays: The preproduction team will transition the artwork from its final design to printer-ready artwork. There is typically no risk for delay in this area. The printer will then produce a final round of art proofs calibrated to their individual presses. One round of revisions is already assumed and build into this process. Additional revisions are not typical though can present a nominal risk. Corporate Delays: While exceeding unusual, corporate can play a small role in delaying a project by canceling one or more packaging designs, adding addition package designs above and beyond what management has previously approved, or by simply delaying the provision of final approval on all finished designed submitted. While these scenarios are unlikely, they do represent the extreme limit of delay-related risk in that they can affect the project for an indeterminate amount of time. Qualified and Quantified Risk Matrix Review Delays Reduce Risk Consistent communication with key reviewers. Engage alternate reviews if primary reviews are unavailable. Enlist managers is alternate reviewers are unavailable. Greater than two days review time by each responsible team member. Project Manager Pre-Production and Printing Delays Reduce Risk Constant communication with pre-production team and printer will reduce or eliminate risks. Buffers in timing are already built into production times. Delays indicated by pre-production team or printer. References Cooper, D. F., Grey, S., Raymond, G., & Walker, P. (2005). Project risk management guidelines: Managing risk in large projects and complex procurements. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons. InvestorWords.com. (2014). quantitative risk assessment. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from http://www.investorwords.com/19179/quantitative_risk_assessment.html Loch, C. H., DeMeyer, A., & Pich, M. T. (2006). Managing the unknown: A new approach to managing high uncertainty and risk in projects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Love is a word that can have multiple meanings. You can love someone for who they are, because of how they act, or maybe even you love the idea of love and rebellion which may include someone special. Ã¢â¬Å"1984Ã¢â¬ depicts this idea of love between Winston and Julia in a manner that changes peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoints. The factors that determine whether Julia and Winston love each other include the idea of love that keeps them together, the physical attraction between them, and the emotional relationship they create.You can determine whether the love that Winston and Julia share is actually true love or is it just the ideas that one loves about another. Ã¢â¬Å"His heart leapt. Scores of times she had done it; he wished it had been hundreds-thousands. Anything that hinted at corruption always filled him with a wild hope. Ã¢â¬ (p. 125). This quote proves that Winston loves the fact that she has had sexual intercourses with scores of Party members, proving the corruption in the P arty itself. But nowhere in the novel does it mention Winston loving Julia, but it mentions what Winston loves about her: her hair, eyes, characteristics, sexual intercourses, etc. This idea also intertwines with the concept of love and physical attraction. Physical attraction is one of the ideas and human characteristics that the Party is trying to eliminate. Any signs of physical attraction to another member or Prole can result in becoming an Ã¢â¬Å"unpersonÃ¢â¬ . He thought of her naked, youthful body, as he had seen in his dream. He had imagined her a fool like all the rest of them, her head stuffed with lies and hatred, her belly full of ice. A kind of fever seized him at the thought that he might lose her, the white youthful body might slip away from him! Ã¢â¬ (p. 109-110). This quote proves that Winston indeed has a physical attraction to Julia, but not because he loves her, but because he wants to prove a point against the Party without them actually knowing. By stating that she is Ã¢â¬Å"a fool like all the rest of them, her head stuffed with lies and hatred, her bell full of iceÃ¢â¬ , Winston attempts to mock the Party by presenting a case where he has attracted a devoted Party member and therefore broken their stronghold. But as later seen in the novel, physical attraction may not only be the main idea behind the Ã¢â¬ËloveÃ¢â¬â¢ Winston has for Julia. Emotional attraction is one of the major connections between Winston and Julia and it affects the overall purpose of the novel. Ã¢â¬Å"He had never before seen or imagined a woman of the Party with cosmetics on her face. The improvements in her appearance were startling. Ã¢â¬ (p. 142). Although this quote does not directly portray an emotional connection between the two Party members, the physical changes are the ones that attract Winston more emotionally to Julia. He is already connected to Julia in a manner which involves her body, her ideas and her methods of rebellion. Emotionally though, Winston sees that she is more than just an idea outside Party views, but a person with emotions and feelings. Winston is able to see this clearly during this scene. All of these different connections allow readers to analyze whether the there is a true love between Winston and Julia or is it just a love about being an individual in a society which commands all inhabitants to be the same? The idea of love, the physical attraction and emotional connection assist readers in deciding whether or not Winston and Julia are truly in love. Each and all have arguments for and against the point but whether there is truly a love attraction between the two has, and always will, stay as a thought in the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ mind. The true answer to this question will always remain with the author of the award-winning novel.