Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Free Trade and Fair Trade Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Free Trade and Fair Trade - Research Paper Example ng trade and therefore facilitating economic growth and development while fair trade aims at empowering the disadvantaged groups and helping them to improve their living standards. The two concepts also differ in the individuals that they benefit because while free trade benefits established traders in the global market such as multinational corporations, fair trade benefits marginalized economic players, especially in less developed countries. The scope of the two concepts also identifies antagonizing effects. While liberalization such as lowering of tariffs and elimination of trade barriers characterize free trade, fair trade identifies restrictions that may aim at restricting entry of more efficient prayers in a given market segment (Fair Trade Resource 1). Free trade identifies eliminated regulations and restriction in a market with the aim of promoting trade and economic activities while fair trade involves establishment of restrictions and regulations with the aim of protecting a marginalized group in a market. Fair Trade Resource. â€Å"How does fair trade differ from free trade?† Free Trade Resource. N.d. Web. February 4, 2014.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Transformational leadership Essay Example for Free

Transformational leadership Essay Does Academic Leaders influence Staffs’ Commitment to Service Quality in Malaysia? This paper discussed the relationship between leadership style of transformational and the commitment to service quality among academic staffs in public and private Malaysian Universities. It has been argued that excellent service quality performance is one of the key factors in building niche and having competitive edge that separates one from its competitors nationally and globally. Total useable questionnaires were 387 with a response rate of 36 percent. The result revealed that there is a significant relationship between transformational leadership style and commitment to service quality among academic staff at the Malaysian universities. This study implies to the policy makers and academic leaders at the universities that they should focus in developing their academic staff, by tapping their potentials, inspiring them, promoting collaboration, motivating and reinforcing positive attitudes towards commitment to service quality. Future study should consider alternative modes of enquires such as employing the longitudinal method of data collection design and a nationwide survey covering samples from the whole population of the higher institutions of learning in Malaysia that would be more significant in making generalizations . Keywords: Service quality, Transformational Leadership, Commitment to Service Quality, Malaysia 1. Introduction Existing literature on education indicates a motion towards â€Å"educational excellence† which is about world class branding, marketable academic programmes, research activities and facilities in attracting and retaining foreign and local students (Isahak, 2007), but how does one compete to be different?Governing bodies, in Malaysia such as the Malaysian Qualification Agency (MQA) provide accreditation to quality programmes that fulfill certain standards. But how do Malaysian Universities attempt to remain competitive and maintain a sustainable growth in this volatile environment where programmes seen to be globally homogeneous in nature, competitive in terms of pricing, and significant in location and branding? Hudson et al. (2004) argued that excellent service quality performance is one of the key factors in building market niche and a competitive edge that separates one from its competitors. Sim and Idrus (2004), Jusoh et al. (2004), and Sahney et al, (2008) concurred and uphold the notion that commitment from the academic staff in the education sector to the overall organizational goal such as in the delivery of high service quality is a better strategy as in the case of customer retention and satisfaction. Unfortunately, not much attention has been given to the issue of commitment to service quality among the academic staff in the higher education sector. There is an increasing thought supporting the idea that students‟ evaluation of service quality in the Malaysian universities is to a large extent influenced by the way they are treated by the customer contact employee notably the academic staff (Hasan et al., 2008; Ismail Abiddin, 2009). Past researches have also suggested that some universities in Malaysia were losing students because their standard of service quality was not up to the expectation of the students (Jain et al., 2004; Firdaus, 2006; Latif et al., 2009). It was reported that the level of service quality in the Malaysian universities was just mediocre (Jusoh et al. 2004; Sim Idrus, 2004; Hasan et al., 2008, Ismail Abiddin, 2009). This arises concern in the way the students‟ are being treated or handled. The implication of these students‟ withdrawals may not only be costly to the students‟ potential success in their career but also to the universities‟ reputation, operational and manpower costs (Curry, 2001). But  the greatest loss of all will be in terms of potential knowledge workers to the nation. Studies on „commitment to service quality‟ are important and necessary but unfortunately there is still little progress in research in this area. Embracing commitment to service quality is mainly to bring about financial growth and an image of sustainability to service organisations. Many questions about what really motivates commitment to service quality among academic staff remains unanswered, particularly in the context of education. Past leadership literatures have associated transformational leaders to organizational commitment, such as to service quality delivery (Jabnoun Rasasi, 2005); building relationships with customers (Liao Chuang, 2007); students engagement with schools (Leithwood Jantzi,1999) and towards school reforms (Geijsel et al., 2003). Nevertheless, empirical research on transformational leadership and commitment of academic staff to service quality is not extensive and in most past studies, their focus was on management or based on the analysis of the customer level. Individual focus, specifically on the study of academic staff is limited in developing countries, such as Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this research was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership style and the academic staff‟s commitment to service quality at Malaysian Universities. Based on the findings of this research, it is hope that it would also provide some information and understanding that will assist the leaders and policy makers of the Malaysian Universities as employers to realize the contributions of their academic staff in securing profitability and wealth through the commitment of good service quality. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Commitment to Service Quality Studies on the commitment to service quality in education literatures follow the same footpath as the general definition of affective commitment. Affective commitment is defined by Meyer and Allen (1991) as â€Å"an employee‟s emotional attachment to, identification with and involvement in the organization†. Commitment to service quality is defined and understood as  Ã¢â‚¬Å"conformity to a specification† (Martin 1986; Witt Steward, 1996; O‟Neil Palmer, 2004) and in achieving â€Å"excellence† (Peters Waterman, 1982). Clark et al. (2009) defined commitment to service quality as the â€Å"dedication of employees to render service quality and the willingness to go beyond what is expected of them†. Past findings have also established that employees who are committed to the organization will remain loyal and are inversely related to turnover (Hartline et al., 2000; Elmadag et al., 2008). In such conditions, employees were known to spend more time and energy in assisting the organization realize its goals and they also put their own self interest aside (Porter et al., 1973; Tsai, 2008; Sohail Shaikh, 2004; Yiing Ahmad, 2008). O‟Neil (2000) in his study in higher education concurred on the importance of internal customer commitment to service quality as a means of gaining competitive advantage. Satisfied external customers, for example the students, were reported to spread by â€Å"word of mouth recommendations†, which is a powerful tool in marketing (Cuthbert, 1996). 2.2. Transformational Leadership Leaderships can be of many facets and visages. They differ in effectiveness in terms of consequences of their actions towards internal and external stakeholders. Since organizations today are facing many challenges, there is a need for leaders in organizations to contribute not only in terms of knowledge or ideas but also in making right the decisions and responding to the changes (Horner, 1997; Christie, 2002). According to Bass and Avolio (1990), transformational leaders will focus on developing their followers by tapping them of their potentials, inspiring them, promoting collaboration, motivating them and by reinforcing positive behaviours. Bass (1990) argues that transformational leaders are pertinent especially during turbulent times when rapid changes and globalization takes place. Barnett et al. (2001), Antonakis et al., (2003) and Kirkbride (2006) preferred to delineate transformational leadership based on five factors. They have adopted from Bass and Avolio‟s (1995, 1997) studies. The five components as suggested by Barnett et al. (2001), Antonakis et al. (2003) and Kirkbride (2006) are: individualized considerations, intellectual stimulation, inspirational  motivation, idealized influence (attributes) and idealized influence (behavior). Table 1 below presents the five components. Table 1: Five components of Transformational Leadership Variables Individualized considerations Characteristics Leaders who recognize their followers‟ individual differences and will treat them individually. Intellectual stimulation Leaders, who encourage problem solving abilities and risks taking. They also encourage their followers to re-examine any problem first and not making assumptions unbeneficial to the organization. Inspirational motivation Leaders, who have the ability to inspire and stimulate followers to perform well in accordance to their ability by giving them some sense of purpose. Leaders, who display attributes of charismatic and competence. They are confident in facing and solving problems and showing their powers for positive benefits. Idealized Influence (attributes) Idealize Leaders, who exhibit charismatic behavior that comes with a high sense of morality. They are trustworthy, honest, high integrity and are set to Influence achieve their mission and purpose (behavior) Source: Barnett et al. (2001), Antonakis et al. (2003) and Kirkbride (2006) In Malaysia, the study on transformational leadership styles is dominated in various business settings and in relation to diverse predictors such as job satisfaction ( Yusof Shah, 2008) and organizational commitment (Azman, Al-Banna, Zaidi, Hamran Hanim,2011). Yet, there is a lack of research done in exploring on the issue in relation to employee‟s commitment to service quality in education setting. In related studies by Lo, Ramayah and Min (2009) in manufacturing industry, they reported of a strong and positive relationship between transformational leadership style and employees‟ continuance organizational commitment. This view was further supported by Boon and Arumugam (2006) in their study in semiconductor setting in Malaysia. They studied the influence of corporate culture on organizational commitment and found that in a corporate culture that placed emphasis in teamwork, communication, training and development and rewards, employees in return have indicated a significantly higher commitment to the organization goals. Past study by Kasim (2010) had attempted to explore the relationship of transformational leadership on the issue of gender among the deans, deputy deans and heads of department at the higher institutions in Malaysia. It was found that there was no significant relationship between gender and leadership style of transformational. However, in this turbulent and ever changing environment, transformational leaders are much needed, especially when the educational leaders were experiencing threats of mergers or a total collapse and thus there in need of drastic changes in order to survive. 3. Research Model and Hypothesis The proposed research model is depicted in Figure 3.1 below. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP COMMITMENT TO SERVICE QUALITY Figure 3.1 : Conceptual Framework The hypothesized relationship between the dependent and independent variables is developed in the following paragraph. Due to their charismatic and visionary nature, transformational leaders tend to foster strong feelings of emotional attachments to the organization, team mates and superior‟s so much so that they are willing to â€Å"transcend their own self interest† for the organization and become partners (Narimawati, 2007). Employees who were under transformational leaders were also seen to exhibit a high sense of commitment in service organization (Emery Barker; 2007; Nguni et al.; 2006; McGuire Kennerly, 2006; Chen, 2004). As a result, the likelihood that transformational leadership styles would prompt high commitments especially when followers are made to realize that commitment to service quality will give their organization the competitive edge over other competitors and meet their customers‟ satisfaction. Based on this assumption, the following hypothesis is postulated: H1a: There is a significant positive relationship between transformational leadership style and the academic staff‟s commitment to service quality 4. Methodology and Research Design 4.1 Research Design This study was designed to investigate the relationship between independent variable of transformational leadership styles and dependent variable of commitment to service. The relevant units of analysis in this study focused on the academic staff in selected universities in Malaysia. Their perception of their immediate superiors such as the deans or heads of department or heads of schools were closely studied to identify their commitment to service quality. A quantitative cross sectional survey research was employed in this study. The survey was conducted on both public and private universities in Malaysia. Approximately 1076 questionnaires were sent out with a total of 387 responses. Overall the response rate was 36 percent which was slightly better than what was reported generally in the Malaysian context (Othman et al., 2001). To ensure similarity in characteristics, the  sample of respondent chosen was based on the following: i) a minimum academic staff‟s population of more than 150; and ii) the minimum number of ten (10) years of operation. Basically, universities were chosen due to geographical convenience for accessibility to the respondents. Past researches in the education context for examples: Arokiasamy et al. (2007), Noordin and Jusoff (2009) and Santhapparaj and Alam (2005) have also drawn most of their samples on the same basis and therefore have supported in terms of external validity of generalization of the findings (Ariffin,2006, Sakeran, 2005). 4.2 Survey Instrument The questionnaire for the study consists of three (3) sections meant to capture the variables related to the leadership style, commitment to service quality and also the demographic section related to the academic staff. Transformational leadership was measured by using 20 items adapted from a later version of MLQ instrument commonly known as MLQ 5x-short-forms. Although the factors that measure transformational leadership styles were distinctive, in this study a single dimensional construct for transformational style was adopted. This is in line with past empirical studies by Walumbwa et al. (2004, 2005) on transformational leadership construct. A recent modified version by Clark et al. (2009) was adapted in this study. A slight modification was made in order to complement the study context for measures for commitment to service quality items. Nine (9) items to measure the variable were selected. The items for both scale were measured on a 5-Point Likert-type scale, anchored by 1, â€Å"strongly disagree† through to 5, â€Å"strongly agree. To assess the reliability of the measurement items of all the variables, the researcher undertook Cronbach‟s Alpha coefficient analysis to test the reliability of the instruments. The instrument was tested for internal reliability and the following Table 2 demonstrates the scales generated. Table 2: Overall Internal Reliability Variables Transformational Leadership Style Commitment to service quality Reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha) 0.916 0.841 The reliability tests indicate an excellent reliability for all its components with a coefficient alpha of above 0.7 exceeding the minimum acceptable level as suggested by Nunnally and Berstein (1994). In order to ascertain that all the measurements in this study exhibits some degree of validity, content validity was conducted (Davis Consenza, 1988) in the pre-tested stage by soliciting the expert opinions of two professors from a university. After necessary modifications, the scale was also pre-tested to a set of respondents similar to the population as suggested by Davis and Consenza (1988). 5. Findings/ Discussion. Tables 3 below summarize the demographic profiles of the respondents. The sample also indicates that female respondents represented a slightly higher percentage of total samples (59%) when compared to the male respondents (41%). The majority of the respondents possessed Master degrees or others of similar level (71%) while 29 percent had completed their doctorate degree. Majority of the respondents were middle age of between 30 to 40 years of age (43%) followed by those between 40 to 50 years old (25%). About 18 percent of the academicians were younger of age of between 20-30 years. With reference to their experience in teaching, the sample showed a balance between those who had teaching experience of between 1 to 5 years (33%) and 5 to 10 years (28%).More than 47 percent of the respondents were from business faculty followed by faculty of information technology (12%). Table 3: Summary of Respondents’ Profile Variables Gender Frequency Percent Doctorate 113 29.20 274 70.80 20 30 Years 69 17.83 168 43.41 97 25.07 50 and above 53 13.69 1

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Sharks :: Papers

INTRODUCTION Although sharks belong to the class Chondrichtyes, there are many different types. Sharks arose about 350 million years ago and have remained virtually unchanged for the past 70 million years and still comprise a dominant group. It is thought that sharks almost certainly evolved from placoderms, a group of primitive jawed fishes. It took a long series of successful and unsuccessful mutations with fin, jaw positions etc to give us all the different designs of sharks around today. When asked to draw a shark, most people would draw a shape along the lines of the whaler shark family, tigers or a mackeral shark such as a porbeagle. However many people do not realize the sheer diversity in the shape of sharks, or that rays are really sharks. Seldom does such an animal inspire such a variety of emotions reflecting a mixture of fascination, awe and fear. Sharks have occasionally exacted a terrible price from humans who have trespassed on their territory. No better understood than the ocean t hat they inhabit, these creatures should be regarded in the same way as lions, tigers, and bears: as dangerous, predatory but nonetheless magnificent animals. Different Types of Sharks Living sharks are divided into eight major orders, each easily recognizable by certain external characteristics. Each order contains one or more smaller groups, or families. In all there are 30 families of sharks and they contain the 350 or more different kinds or species of sharks. The eight major orders of sharks include the Squantiformes, Pristiophormes, Squaliformes, Hexanchiformes, Carcharhiniformes, Lamniformes, Orectolobiformes, and the Heterodotiformes. The orders have distinguishing characteristics that fit in each. The Squantiformes normally have flat bodies that are ray-like with mottled dorsal surfaces. These sharks have a short terminal mouth, which is armed with small impaling teeth. They also have a caudal fin, which has a lower lobe that is longer than the upper lobe. Their pectoral fi ns extend forward over the ventrally directed gills. The Pristiophormes have more of an elongated snout, which is saw-like and edged with slender, needle-sharp lateral teeth. They have two dorsal fins and no anal fin. They use short transverse mouths and small cuspidate holding teeth in both jaws. Squaliformes have no anal fin as well, but their snout is not elongated, but is somewhat long. Many have powerful cutting teeth in both jaws. In some species these razor sharp teeth are in the lower jaw only and the upper teeth serve to hold the food.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

3M Case Study

3M CASE STUDY Q1) Conservative Approach: Three Product Concepts * Mandate from management * Should not risk new process; Dunlop may use â€Å"revolution† against new method * Need to validate method at least once before basing major strategic decisions on it. * Not enough data yet to make such a drastic recommendation * Three concepts appear very promising and are enough of a â€Å"success† already. Radical Approach: New Business Unit Strategy * Team was charged with finding breakthroughs; Medical-Surgical business needs growth * Team is empowered and should report all relevant information. Fits the defiant 3M culture * Fits 3M’s new strategic mission even though Dunlop does not buy into it. Q2) Incrementalism worked well because it†¦ Has allowed for leveraging pre-existing product platforms such as Post-it notes and Scotch brand tape can reduce development costs while exploiting 3M’S pre-existing marketing channels and relationship. . . . Q3) Traditi onal 3M Development Process * Developers, in recent decades, lack direct contact with customers * Developers are not directly accountable for understanding customer’s needs. Marketing research is outsourced to third parties or â€Å"thrown over the wall† * Traditional methods are linear and tend to support primarily incremental innovations Lead User Research Process * Puts developers in direct contact with users * Focus on a few individuals (Lead Users and lead use experts) with extremely rich need and solution-specific information In lead user research, a considerable amount of time is spent in people networking in order to find the right ‘lead users’ to work with, as opposed to traditional market research methods which only collect information from users who are at the center of the target market Developers learn from users outside traditional business focus * -picked up from a market that is either loosely related or even unrelated to the target market as in the case with the makeup artist they use in the 3M lead user research group * Pushes developers toward leading edge with radical new concepts * Can be complement with traditional market research techniques (during validation) * Use traditional market research to check validity of research Lead users vs Leading-edge customersAs opposed to leading edge customers who provide need- related information, lead users provide need & solution information as they have innovated themselves. In traditional methods, marketers only seek to identify the problem, not necessarily the solution Companies may carry out focus groups and analyze customer complaints to find the issues. Later product developers analyze this research and use their own ideas to find possible solutions for a new product.Conversely, lead user research methods collect data on both the problem and the available solutions from markets that have similar needs. The development team then uses the ideas that were found in these markets and comes up with a set of possible new product ideas that suit the company’s needs based on ideas from the lead users and expertise†¦ meeting a real customer need Lead users can be found in target or analogous markets. Lead use experts in a target market are often useful in identifying †¦ Q4)Stakeholders| Incentives/Motives| Methods| Senior Management| Financial results| Demonstrate how breakthrough products can affect bottom line. Evidence from other firms. Allow senior managers to take credit for new innovation strategy| Middle Management| Employee ProductivityMotivationProject performance| Seminars, pilot studiesSenior management involvementRegular updates of progress| ScientistsEngineers| Ease or workEmpowermentFlexibilityInteresting work| Interaction with previous usersShare excitement and praise efforts. Trust them. |

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Pericles Funeral Speech and Jefferson Declaration of Independence Essay

September 11, 2001, two planes crash into the World Trade Center, people diving out windows to their deaths, a plane crashes into the Pentagon, hijackers overtaken by passengers and crash the plane into a field in Pennsylvania. December 2003, mass graves uncovered in Iraq, compliments of Saddam Husayn. May, 2004, a web page shows terrorists cutting off the head of Nick Berg. August 2004, over 350 children are executed by terrorists in a school in Russia. Democracy is being threatened by enigmatic zealots all over the world. The United States have fought for Democracy as far back as the Revolutionary War, and both World Wars. Once again our military is being asked to make the ultimate sacrifice in the attack on democracy against these zealots. Fighting for democracy has been the cause of wars since the days of Pericles. Pericles states that â€Å"Our constitution does not seek to copy the laws of our neighbors; we are an example to others, not imitators of them†. During his time there was usually one ruler that had the power over life and death, the mass of people did not matter. In Athens this was far from the case. Athens created its own government, one that was for the people, and benefited the people. Pericles said with conviction, â€Å"As far as public life is concerned, we live as free men†. The people of Athens had a government that supported them; they were all equal in the eyes of the government. The city of Athens stood by itself; it needed no others to help it. She left her gates open to all and did not concern herself with excluding foreigners. Her military stood alone. Athens never advanced into another territory with Allies; she did it alone. He also marvels in the fact that Athens does not live for the fear of war. He states that they live free, but are always ready if in danger. He even goes so far to say that his enemies are happy with a victory over a small part of the army. Pericles praises Athens for her form of government – democracy – because it is only in a democracy that citizens are encouraged to contribute and participate in self-rule. Democracy brings equality, merit brings public success, social and economic mobility is encouraged, and the law protects all: â€Å"We alone consider the man who refuses to take part in city affairs useless,† Pericles announces. And he gets in a  dig at Sparta by proudly proclaiming that â€Å"rather than look upon discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it is an indispensable preliminary to any wise action at all.† Pericles encourages his audience â€Å"to realize the greatness of Athens† and enjoy everything the city has to offer: â€Å"Further, we provide many ways to refresh the mind from the burdens of business. We hold contests and offer sacrifices all the year round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to drive away sorrow. The magnitude of our city draws the produce of the world into our harbor, so that to the Athenian the fruits of other countries are as familiar a luxury as those of his own.† What Pericles talks about in his speech is almost dimmed in importance by how he delivers the message. It is Pericles’ rhetoric that makes this speech famous and the model for so many others in the course of history. Throughout his speech, Pericles holds up glory as the incentive for men to rush to battle for their freedom: Athens is a glorious city because of the sacrifices of previous generations of men, and this generation, too, must shoulder its burden. And while fighting for your country can help bring about a victory, it also has the benefit of bringing you personal glory, something Pericles believes can be gained in no other way than by dying for your country: â€Å"Realize for yourself the power of Athens, and feed your eyes upon her day after day, till you become her devoted lover. Then, when all her greatness breaks upon you, reflect that it was by courage, sense of duty and a keen feeling of honor in action that men were enabled to win all this, and that no personal failure in an enterprise could make them consent to deprive their country of their valor, but they laid it at her feet as the most glorious contribution they could offer. By this mutual offering of their lives made by them all, they each of them individually received that renown which never grows old. For a sepulcher they have won not so much that tomb in which their bones are here deposited, but that noblest of shrines wherein their glory is laid up to be eternally remembered upon every occasion on which deed or story shall fall for its commemoration. For heroes have the whole earth for their tomb.† Pericles’ speech is certainly persuasive. Its passion is based in reality. It is a powerful to see a nation mourn its war dead. In the end Pericles  accomplishes his goal to inspire a city in mass mourning for its lost warriors. Woodrow Wilson was faced with a call to arms when in 1917 he proclaimed American entrance into World War I a crusade to make the world â€Å"safe for democracy.† Pericles, in his funeral oration, talks of valor as being very honorable. He comments that â€Å"Choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting† is a bold and courageous act and it deserves praise and glory. He says the soldiers â€Å"fled only from dishonor, but met danger face to face†. Abraham Lincoln was faced with a similar task. The Gettysburg Address was delivered on November 19, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, during dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery. Lincoln’s speech is more humble than Pericles, but just as passionate. He is careful in not mentioning either side of the war; he only speaks of the nation as a whole. â€Å"Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether the nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as the final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that this nation might live.† Lincoln pays tribute to not only the Union army, but the Confederate as well, by saying â€Å"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.† There are obvious parallels between Pericles’ and Lincoln’s speeches. They both set out to accomplish the same thing just in different ways. Another famous writer and scholar with a similar view of Athenian society, Sophocles, chose to voice his opinion through playwright. Specifically in his two great tragedies Oedipus the King and Antigone. Pericles and Sophocles, although coming from different ends of the spectrum (the aforementioned oratory or rhetoric and the latter fictional), both consider the individual and the state in their works and come to similar conclusions with some exceptions. Pericles expresses his views in his â€Å"Funeral Oration†,  where he boasts of the great qualities of Athens, its citizens and soldiers. Sophocles injects his thoughts and ideas into his two masterpieces, Oedipus the King and Antigone. In the following paper, I will compare the men’s ideas and views on the subject of the individual and the state. In particular, their thoughts on the importance of military excellence, honor, courage, and views on women. Both men considered loyalty in battle and involvement in public matters very important. According to Pericles, military achievements and honor make up for anything wrong one does as a citizen (for example, refusing to take part in city affairs). The Greeks obviously looked upon excellence in the military very highly. of all our neighbors, we alone consider the man who refuses to take part in city affairs as useless†¦.For there is justice in the claim that steadfastness in his nation’s battles provides a cloak to cover a man’s other imperfections; the good action blots out the bad, and his merit as a citizen more than outweighs his faults as an individual (Pericles 58-59, 60). Sophocles expresses similar views on the matter in his play Antigo ne, Creon talks of loyalty to the state as having utter importance: As I see it, whoever assumes the task, the awesome task of setting the city’s course, and refuses to adopt the soundest policies but fearing someone, keeps his lips locked tight, he’s utterly worthless†¦.But whoever proves his loyalty to the state – I’ll prize that man in death as well as life (Antigone 48-49). Creon backs up his words with actions. He goes on to talk of Eteocles and Polynices, the two sons of Oedipus: Eteocles will be given a proper burial, since he went down fighting for Thebes, being loyal to his city; Polynices, on the other hand, committed treason and went against everything Creon stands for and believes in, therefore â€Å"he must be left unburied, his corpse carrion for the birds and dogs to tear, an obscenity for the citizens to behold! These are my principles. Never at my hands will the traitor be honored above the patriot† (Antigone 49). As examined, patriotism was held very highly by the Greeks, as seen in Pericles’s oration and Sophocles’s plays we again come across an intersection in both statesmen’s ideas, this time on the subject of courage. Pericles, in his funeral oration, talks of valor as being very honorable. He comments that â€Å"Choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting† (Pericles 60) is a bold and co urageous act and it deserves praise and glory. He says the soldiers â€Å"fled only from  dishonor, but met danger face to face† (Pericles 60). Do these characteristics bring anyone we know to mind? The answer is yes, and two people come to mind: Antigone and Oedipus. Sophocles’s heroin (Antigone) is the ultimate example of the subject Pericles discusses. True, Antigone was not a soldier, but she went against her uncle’s beliefs and commands, and did what was right according to the gods. In burying her brother and then announcing her actions to the world, she â€Å"fled only from dishonor, but met danger face to face.† Antigone questioned Creon and proudly stated she was the offender, and did not regret her actions. Oedipus, instead of giving in to fate, battled it for as long as he could until fate finally beat him. Although it seems that Sophocles writings parallel Pericles views on women’s inferiority, certain excerpts provide a basis that Sophocles’ views contradict those presented in the Funeral Oration. Pericles states, â€Å"if I must say anything on the subject of female excellence†¦.Great will be your glory in not falling short of your natural character; and greatest will be hers who is least talked of among the men whether for good or for bad† (Pericles 61-62). In an excerpt from Sophocles’ Oedipus the King, it is seen that Oedipus gives great weight to Jocasta’s opinion. Oedipus compares stories with Jocasta on the death of the king. He listens to Jocasta’s side of the story, not putting her in a subordinate position or looking at her as inferior (Oedipus the King 23). In Summation, Pericles and Sophocles (although coming from different ends of the spectrum) both consider the individual and the state in their works and come to similar conclusions with some exceptions on the different aspects of the relationship. They both praise loyalty, involvement in state affairs, and honorable death. To note, in my research I found more expression of Sophocles’s views which correlate with Pericles’s in Antigone and not so much in Oedipus the King. All three of three of the pieces were written in times when the definition of freedom, independence, democracy were still new and not well defined in their respective societies. But still in each piece the message is similar and very clear. That message is that it is necessary and good for people to sacrifice themselves for their beliefs and the good of their society.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Materials of Logistics in Management Essay Essays

Materials of Logistics in Management Essay Essays Materials of Logistics in Management Essay Essay Materials of Logistics in Management Essay Essay The efficiency of any fabricating administration depends on the handiness of constituent parts and stuffs in the proper measure. quality. monetary value. scope and clip. Failure in any of these countries increases costs and decreases net income every bit surely as outmoded production methods or uneffective merchandising techniques. This simple but obvious point has merely late come to be decently understood. This book presents the rules. methods and schemes that represent the modern attack to stuffs direction in all sectors of the economic system. In analyzing concern operations. the phrase â€Å"Value-added concept1? is frequently used to characterize the difference between the cost of constituent stuffs and the merchandising monetary value of the finished merchandise. This difference in value represents the alone part of each administration to the production procedure. Many companies produce component parts and stuffs for other houses fabricating specialized merchandises Remanded by the clients. On an norm. a fabrication house buys somewhat more than half of the rupee value of its gross revenues. In other words. the value added is typically less than 50 per cent of its gross revenues. Conversely. the mean company purchases stuffs valued at more than half of what it sells. Therefore. a firm’s net income is to a big extent determined by how efficaciously it procures and manages these stuffs. The organizational attack known as stuffs direction has gained cogency in recent old ages. Production and operations directors found it necessary to develop an organized organic structure of cognition related to be aftering. acquisition and use of stuffs in the procedure of production and it has resulted in the subject known as â€Å"mate-rials management† . All activities involved in conveying stuffs into and through the works are combined under one caput known as â€Å"materials manager† . By giving the stuffs director overall authorization. duty is centralised to guarantee that the overall cost of stuffs is kept at the low’est possible degree. The basic principle for this organizational alteration is to get the better of the jobs of conflicting aims. For cample. purchase department’s concern to guarantee uninterrupted supply of component stuffs may conflict with he inventory control department’s objective to understate stock list degrees or the aim of transportation in full auto burden tonss. Today administrations view procurance as a professional activity including activities involved in obtaining stuffs at minimal cost. transporting them and supplying storage and traveling toward the production procedure. It besides includes economic analysis of supply ( i. e. . purchase economic sciences ) . demand and monetary values and the appraisal of international events that affect stuffs. * development of stuffs direction Historically. the five ‘M’s of fabrication houses viz. Men. Materials. Machines. Money and Methods have shifted their places from clip to clip in their comparative importance. In the early yearss of industrialisation. the focal point was on work forces ( labor ) as they were the chief beginning of productive power. Over a period of clip. the accent shifted towards machines. which became the chief beginning of industrial power after the Industrial Revolution. As the methods of production became more and more complex due to the increased client demand for sophisticated merchandises of high quality. there was greater demand of efficient direction to pull off the complex production systems. In the early 1920s. buying and keeping stock of stuffs was the duty of buying directors or â€Å"chief accountants of buying and stores† in many industries. During and instantly after World War II the focal point shifted on assorted maps associated with stuffs such as buying. receiving. inspecting. hive awaying. continuing. managing. publishing. accounting. transporting and disposing excess and disused stuffs. These maps grouped under one common caput known as stuffs director and the section responsible for all these activities came to be known as â€Å"materials direction department† . But the caput of stuffs direction section performed a staff map to back up the production section and had to describe to the production caput ( manager of production ) in the organisational hierarchy. The oil crisis of the 1970’s changed the precedences of industries all over the universe. The extortionate hiking in oil monetary values and the heavy budget allotments on oil made the industries to command their outgo on the inputs. chiefly stuffs of all sorts because of the big range to cut down the disbursals on stuffs. Since the beginning of twentieth century. stuffs have been acquiring more and more attending and will go on to make so in the hereafter besides. Now a yearss stuff has* become an of import and inevitable input of a production system since the cost of stuffs and cost on stuffs ( cost incurred in buying and hive awaying the stuffs ) put together history for 50 to 85 % of the production cost depending on the nature of the merchandise and the type of the production system. Modern fabrication administrations adopted systems attack to direction. which resulted in the incorporate stuffs direction construct. All maps related to stuffs such as stuffs be aftering. buying. storing and stock list control were integrated under stuffs direction map. The place of the caput of the incorporate stuffs direction section was elevated to be on par with caputs of other functional countries viz. production. finance and human resources. * importance of stuffs in fabrication administrations Materials are any trade goods used straight or indirectly in bring forthing a merchandise or service such as natural stuffs. constituent parts. assemblies and supplies. In the fabrication administrations. the of import inputs are referred to as 5 Ms viz. Men ( Labour ) . Machines. Money. Materials and Methods. The comparative importance among these five Multiple sclerosiss have shifted from clip to clip. In the beginning of industrialization the focal point was on machines. work forces ( labor ) and methods. but from around 1970 onwards the accent is on stuffs. Material is an of import and inevitable input Gb J production system since the cost of stuffs and cost on stuffs ( cost incurred in buying and hive awaying the stuffs ) put together history for 50 to 85’* of the production cost depending on the nature of the merchandise and the type of the production system * importance of stuffs direction Management of stuffs in most administrations is important to their success because the cost of buying. hive awaying. traveling and transporting stuffs account for over half of the product’s cost. Bettering productiveness is a important factor in confronting the challenge of competition and this involves driving down the cost of all facets of concern activities. Since there is maximal range of cost decrease in the country of stuffs. making the occupation of efficient and effectual direction of stuffs is seen as the key to higher productiveness.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Paradox essays

Paradox essays Scientists and the rest of the human race is finally beginning to realize that it has a tendency to try to destroy itself. Scientists are discovering that many of it's creations can and have caused the deaths of many individuals. Studies have shown that many mechanisms and improved materials, which make human chores easier, are now known to cause or could possibly cause mortality rates to increase. People should know about these potential dangers. The microwave, computers, tanning beds, and cellular phones are thought to be the cause of some of these untimely deaths. Also there are chemicals such as lead and asbestos that have and can lead to such casualties. But most of all, it is the use of nuclear reactors to generate power that has caused the destruction of lives. First, although a microwave is a very useful machine, and it helps in speeding up the cooking of food, a microwave can have harmful effects on babies. Mother's milk is sometimes stored in the refrigerator in order to feed a baby more easily. Since the milk is cold it must be heated so that the child will drink it. In laboratory tests bottles with breast milk that were microwaved had a 79% decrease in immunoglobulin-A antibodies, which fight against infection, and a 19% decrease in lysozymes, which help destroy bacteria. Destruction of these antibodies leaves the child at a greater risk of developing a deadly infection (Fraser 17). A smart decision should be made, people should not heat bottled milk in the microwave, and take time to warm the milk in hot water, a baby's life could depend on it. Computer monitors might be the cause of birth defects, miscarriages, and cancer. Computer monitors emit very-low-frequency (VLF) and electromagnetic fields (ELF). The emissions form a sphere around the terminal. A 1988 study indicated that there were twice as many women who worked around computers that miscarried than those who did not. Luckily some companies are now allowing ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

250 Million Years of Turtle Evolution

250 Million Years of Turtle Evolution In a way, turtle evolution is an easy story to follow: the basic turtle body plan arose very early in the history of life (during the late Triassic period), and has persisted pretty much unchanged down to the present day, with the usual variations in size, habitat, and ornamentation. As with most other types of animals, though, the turtle evolutionary tree includes its share of missing links (some identified, some not), false starts, and short-lived episodes of gigantism. Turtles That Werent: Placodonts of the Triassic Period Before discussing the evolution of genuine turtles, its important to say a few words about convergent evolution: the tendency of creatures that inhabit roughly the same ecosystems to develop roughly the same body plans. As you probably already know, the theme of squat, stubby-legged, slow-moving animal with a big, hard shell to defend itself against predators has been repeated numerous times throughout history: witness dinosaurs like Ankylosaurus and Euoplocephalus and giant Pleistocene mammals like Glyptodon and Doedicurus. This brings us to the placodonts, an obscure family of Triassic reptiles closely related to the plesiosaurs and pliosaurs of the Mesozoic Era. The poster genus for this group, Placodus, was an unremarkable-looking creature that spent most of its time on land, but some of its marine relativesincluding Henodus, Placochelys, and Psephodermalooked uncannily like genuine turtles, with their stubby heads and legs, hard shells, and tough, sometimes toothless beaks. These marine reptiles were as close as you could get to turtles without actually being turtles; sadly, they went extinct as a group about 200 million years ago. The First Turtles Paleontologists still havent identified the exact family of prehistoric reptiles that spawned modern turtles and tortoises, but they do know one thing: it wasnt the placodonts. Lately, the bulk of the evidence points to an ancestral role for Eunotosaurus, a late Permian reptile whose wide, elongated ribs curved over its back (a striking adumbration of the hard shells of later turtles). Eunotosaurus itself seems to have been a pareiasaur, an obscure family of ancient reptiles the most notable member of which was the (completely unshelled) Scutosaurus. Until recently, fossil evidence linking the land-dwelling Eunotosaurus and the giant, marine turtles of the late Cretaceous period was sorely lacking. That all changed in 2008 with two major discoveries: first up was the late Jurassic, western European Eileanchelys, touted by researchers as the earliest marine turtle yet identified. Unfortunately, only a few weeks later, Chinese paleontologists announced the discovery of Odontochelys, which lived a whopping 50 million years earlier. Crucially, this soft-shelled marine turtle possessed a full set of teeth, which subsequent turtles gradually shed over tens of millions of years of evolution. (A new development as of June 2015: researchers have identified a late Triassic proto-turtle, Pappochelys, that was intermediate in form between Eunotosaurus and Odontochelys and thus fills an important gap in the fossil record!) Odontochelys prowled the shallow waters of eastern Asia about 220 million years ago; another important prehistoric turtle, Proganochelys, pops up in the western European fossil record about 10 million years later. This much bigger turtle had fewer teeth than Odontochelys, and the prominent spikes on its neck meant that it couldnt fully retract its head under its shell (it also possessed  an ankylosaur-like clubbed tail). Most important, the carapace of Proganochelys was fully baked: hard, snug and pretty much impervious to hungry predators. The Giant Turtles of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras By the early Jurassic period, about 200 million years ago, prehistoric turtles and tortoises were pretty much locked into their modern body plans, though there was still room for innovation. The most notable turtles of the Cretaceous period were a pair of marine giants, Archelon and Protostega, both measuring about 10 feet long from head to tail and weighing about two tons. As you might expect, these giant turtles were equipped with broad, powerful front flippers, the better to propel their bulk through the water; their closest living relative is the much smaller (less than one ton) Leatherback. You have to fast-forward about 60 million years, to the Pleistocene epoch, to find prehistoric turtles that approached the size of this duo (this doesnt mean that  giant turtles werent around in the intervening years, just that we havent found much evidence). The one-ton, southern Asian Colossochelys (formerly classified as a species of Testudo) can pretty much be described as a plus-sized Galapagos tortoise, while the slightly smaller Meiolania from Australia improved on the basic turtle body plan with a spiked tail and a huge, weirdly armored head. (By the way, Meiolania received its nameGreek for little wandererin reference to the contemporary Megalania, a two-ton monitor lizard.) The turtles mentioned above all belong to the cryptodire family, which accounts for the vast majority of marine and terrestrial species. But no discussion about prehistoric turtles would be complete without a mention of the aptly named Stupendemys, a two-ton pleurodire turtle of Pleistocene South America (what distinguishes pleurodire from cryptodire turtles is that they pull their heads into their shells with a sideways, rather than a front-to-back, motion). Stupendemys was far and away the largest freshwater turtle that ever lived; most modern side-necks weigh about 20 pounds, max! And while were on the subject, lets not forget the comparably ginormous Carbonemys, which may have done battle with the giant prehistoric snake Titanoboa 60 million years ago in the swamps of South America.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Is a Computer playing chess using 'brute force' unbeatable Essay

Is a Computer playing chess using 'brute force' unbeatable - Essay Example The computer intelligence and cognition is simply based on the several moves that are stored in its memory. It goes through all the possible moves and chooses the one with the best probability (Razmov V (2010)). The brute force method also tended to have a non evaluative advantage over and above the chess master Garry Kasporov. Human mind cannot record and evaluate all the possible moves in a given situation as it doesn’t have that much retaining capacity. However, after Garry Kasporov defeated the chess player Deep Blue, they refused for a re-match because they feared that Garry had understood their algorithm codes and approaches (Feng-Hsiung, H., 2006, p. 51). They did not want the world to believe that Deep Blue actually has no cognitive power or intelligence except for its highly fast processing power. Thus, the brute force method does not use any artificial intelligence or cognitive powers; it simply is a fast processing and evaluating method used by the computer chess player. It thus looks possible and realistic as Garry Kaporov was able to break the code of the computer and win against it. Chess News (no date)  Nettavisen: We have tested the worlds best chess program  [Online]. Available at:  (Accessed on 10

Newspaper Articles Summary Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Newspaper Articles Summary - Assignment Example For that reason, Mcbrayer says that root cause of this attitude must lie somewhere else but not in the philosphers. Mcbrayer argues in the article that the attitude of viewing moral values as mere opinions that are not factual lies in the education system of America, particularly in the curriculum. Mcbrayer says that his research on the topic made him to realize that children are taught, from very tender age, to view moral values as being mere beliefs or opinions. Mcbrayer goes on to argue that children are taught that a fact is a claim that can be evidenced, on the other hand, an opinion is a claim that cannot be evidenced or proved. For this reason, Mcbrayer argues, children are taught to view all moral claims as being mere claims and not facts. For his reason, according to Mcbrayer, children develop negative attitude against moral values and the view moral values as being untrue claims. Mcbrayer claims in the article that the dichotomy of facts and opinions in the curriculum in American schools accounts for the reason why American children think that there are no moral facts. Mcbrayer conclude s his article by saying that moral values are indeed facts and not mere opinions; for Mcbrayer, a belief or an opinion can be true. For this reason, moral values are indeed true claims and for that reason they are facts and not mere opinions. A critical view of Mcbrayer’s views in this article shows that Mcbrayer is right in his view that moral values are facts and not mere opinions. This is because, although, we cannot give proof or evidence of moral values, there are many other things in life that we cannot give evidence of and yet we hold them as truth. Since moral values help human beings to live well and to maintain human dignity, moral values are indeed facts and not mere opinions. In this article, an Oliver sack laments the fact that she is suffering from the

Friday, October 18, 2019

Electronic commerce as the concept of marketing Essay

Electronic commerce as the concept of marketing - Essay Example Electronic commerce as the concept of marketing Information technology plays an important role in the development and growth of industries of any economy.. Incorporation of information technologies has changed the business process of all the industries whether they are small-scale or large scale. It has entirely changed the aspects of market competitiveness in terms of products and processes. The amalgamation of information technology into business sector recompenses for size and distance and enables companies to expand and to work in a global market. Using new innovative tools and techniques of information distribution, they can no longer be isolated from international market. Such technologies includes electronic/video conferencing, mailing, tele-conferencing, electronic commerce, electronic networking etc. Internet is pool that can be used to access any kind of information without compensating on quality, legal and regulatory requirements, fiscal regulations and opportunities. It becomes very simple and easy to attain, collect any kind of information on technologies and markets with the use of various networking components. The acquired information can be used as a source of analysis to increase the productivity, profit and market share of the enterprise. The information is accessible with in a few seconds.Evolution in the world of computing and in the era of communications takes the form of global information networking. The net result of this innovation is that it decreases the cost, the time for collection the required valuable information no matter how far that information is. Along with this, the ability to collect, analyze and the frequency of transmission of data has enhanced extremely. Local knowledge can be assimilated, distributed among economic agents and then can be merged with global knowledge to give the valuable piece of information. The net effect of all these activities and use of communications technology has drastically decreased the transaction costs; expedite the triumph of scope with the familiar rapid and continuous customization. Such transmissions undermine authoritative controls since the hoarding of information is no longer possible. For all the Internet's promise as the consummate commercial marketing vehicle many companies are skeptical of their ability to accurately judge the return on their cyberspace investment. The development of internet-based technologies opens endless opportunities for Marketers. Drawing coop concentration to the ethical facet of the use of web-based technologies in the area of business might comprise of differentiating force for proactive firms. So, eCommerce is everywhere whether it is e Mail and messaging or shopping cart or order processing system or domestic or international payment systems. But in this rapidly changing environment of e business, business executives need to react immediately and sufficiently by converting their traditional business strategies to e-commerce processes. In doing so, they must assess opportunitie s and threats by examining closely the economic, demographic, political, cultural and technological factors that affect businesses trading online. Economic Factors With the emergence of whole world as global market, the significance of e

Micro economics assignments(video response) Assignment

Micro economics assignments(video response) - Assignment Example In tandem with the second video, the third video focuses upon engaging the consumer â€Å"outside the traditional ad†. As such, the video focuses upon the fact that individuals have lost interest in the traditional advertising spot and have ultimately to get out; oftentimes relying upon alternative approaches as a means of integrating with the consumer. Finally, the fourth video engage the viewer with an understanding of the importance of consumer sentiment and the relevance of test groups, market outreach, market research, and psychology with regards to ultimately selling a product to a given consumer. Within such a level of analysis, each of these specific videos helps to discuss and analyze the manner through which human activity is formed on a subconscious level and the manner through which an advertiser/marketer can impact upon this. ... Likewise, this reduction in the cost of most goods would lead the reader to question why the consumer price index itself has not dropped further. The video explains that whereas consumer goods have come to be much lower in overall costs, the â€Å"basket† of goods and services that is measured as a means of determining CPI and inflation rates is predicated not only upon consumable goods; rather, it includes luxury items, things such as the average mortgage, services to include legal and repair, and even out of country holidays. As such, almost each and every single one of these has risen; thereby creating a situation in which inflation continues to rise even though salaries are rising at the same time and the cost of consumer goods is dropping. Work Consulted Addicted to Cheap Shopping? Why the Real Cost of Goods Keeps Going Down. Dir. BBC News. Perf. n/a.  2012. BBC News, 2012. Film. Frontline. Dir. PBS News. Perf. n/a/=.  2012. PBS, 2012.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Economics Regulation and Market Structures Essay

Economics Regulation and Market Structures - Essay Example Economic regulation affects new companies who want to enter into a market. This reason why new competitors are affected is that they may not be able to enter into a market due to this form of regulation. Social regulation deals with exact social problems such as toxic waste, produce safety, employee safety, and prejudice (â€Å"Social Regulation†). Social regulation exists because in the 60s and 70s the government established regulatory agencies to handle a wide variety of social problems. The entities affected by social regulation include local businesses and citizens. Businesses may have to have a plan to deal with social problems, while citizens may have their rights restricted in terms of what they can purchase. A natural monopoly occurs when a firm can fulfil the market demand for a good or service at a cheaper price than all other competitors (â€Å"Natural Monopoly†). The reason why natural monopolies occur is because sometimes a market can only support one produ cer. According to economic theory, firms can attain monopolies because of unique raw materials, technology, or other factors. An example of a natural monopoly is the gas industry. It is uneconomical to build new infrastructure so just one set of infrastructure is built. This results in company having total control of the market (Pieterz). The antitrust laws attempt to order business to compete fairly.

Descartes Discourse on the Thinking and Existence Essay

Descartes Discourse on the Thinking and Existence - Essay Example Descartes goes ahead to explore the origin of the human thinking ability in order to justify the perfection of knowing than doubting. He explains that by doubting we get to come up with explanations that lead to knowing. This leads him to the conclusion that the ideas of the imaginable things exist within him, but they do not originate from him, rather they are imposed on him by a more perfect being than him (God). The incorporation of Descartes existence with God is quite convincing. He argues that since he knew more than what actually existed in his conscience, then it meant the extra knowledge was derived from an external source. If the external source did not exist, it should mean that he could not have been the way he was; mortal, changing, finite and impotent. God according to him added unto him the perfection that he needed to erase doubt from his mind. So one’s nature will allow him/her to know as much of God’s nature as he/she could. Descartes in his quest to discover more about himself ends up proving that God exists. I agree with him because he clearly outlines man’s imperfections, thus looks up to God for guidance in almost everything. However, a person’s thinking limits them within a very short scope of imagination that they end up not questioning what they think is true. We are so much rooted in our cultures and superstitions until we are rendered intellectually impaired.  

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Economics Regulation and Market Structures Essay

Economics Regulation and Market Structures - Essay Example Economic regulation affects new companies who want to enter into a market. This reason why new competitors are affected is that they may not be able to enter into a market due to this form of regulation. Social regulation deals with exact social problems such as toxic waste, produce safety, employee safety, and prejudice (â€Å"Social Regulation†). Social regulation exists because in the 60s and 70s the government established regulatory agencies to handle a wide variety of social problems. The entities affected by social regulation include local businesses and citizens. Businesses may have to have a plan to deal with social problems, while citizens may have their rights restricted in terms of what they can purchase. A natural monopoly occurs when a firm can fulfil the market demand for a good or service at a cheaper price than all other competitors (â€Å"Natural Monopoly†). The reason why natural monopolies occur is because sometimes a market can only support one produ cer. According to economic theory, firms can attain monopolies because of unique raw materials, technology, or other factors. An example of a natural monopoly is the gas industry. It is uneconomical to build new infrastructure so just one set of infrastructure is built. This results in company having total control of the market (Pieterz). The antitrust laws attempt to order business to compete fairly.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Briefing Article 750 words & Case Analysis Report 1000 words include Essay

Briefing Article 750 words & Case Analysis Report 1000 words include appropriate 2-3 graphics - Essay Example They have more than 300,000 Team Members at corporate offices and they have owned, managed and franchised properties in 90 different countries. Audience: Hilton worldwide focuses business and cooperate class worldwide. Their main target is business people who travel from country to country to attend their seminars and meetings. They provide them with best services and hospitality. They keep on improving their hotels culture, environment and services to make their customer attracted and impressed. Hilton worldwide is a market leader in hospitality, sustainability, travel, and tourism and business sector. They are grabbing the attention of their audience by updating photos of every event that held in there on social media. This thing helps them to stay in touch with their audience. More over they attract people by their magazines and latest updates on face book and via emails to some regular customers (Hilton Caribbean 2013). Strategy: The PR CP assured Communications Strategy Hilton W orldwide had a voice in all targeted areas and relevant markets for the Organization's goals and mission statement. The main campaign for Hilton Worldwide Australasia was based around the leadership of thought and raises the profile of the Organization and its main spokesman. Hilton Worldwide could not be positioned as "just another brand of luxury hotel" instead; CP Communications has developed a strategy which focuses on the "behind the scenes of the development of business and HR of Hilton Worldwide practices as well as the sector of the luxury target, travel and hospitality. Media strategy focused on shedding light on Hilton Worldwide Australasia made differently from the other brands of hotels, to raise awareness on key questions, issues and changes that occur with the industry and introduced Hilton Worldwide as a leader of opinion and change agent to these key discussion topics. This strategy has been chosen to achieve a wider network of customers - and not only luxury, hospit ality and travel business, but, HR, customer service and the MICE sector sustainability. The public relations for Hilton Worldwide Australasia strategy involved running tactics of traditional public relations, including press releases, interviews, and the possibilities of expression. Causes and effects: Hilton worldwide is one of the most expensive hotel and its charges are increasing in nights ( 2013. This is no good for the clients and for the hotel itself. Household finances are also increasing so they will prefer to fulfill their basic necessities instead of spending in such an expensive hotel. They might buy their own farm house to spend vocation instead spending money in hotel in every vocations. Unemployment level is also increasing are more people are interested to be a part of hospitality industry. Recommendation: Hilton worldwide is doing its job very perfectly and efficiently handling its services. It in so many different countries but s till manages to maintain the quality of services and products. If we compare Hilton worldwide expenses and charges they are much higher than other five and seven star hotels. But if we look at the experience differentiation than there is no comparison of their hotel and living experience over there. Spending money in a place like Hilton worldwide seems worthwhile. Predictions: Research shows that Hilton Worldwide will be the market leader in the hospitality indus

Monday, October 14, 2019

Communication Style Case Study Essay Example for Free

Communication Style Case Study Essay Communication style is definitely very important in a work environment especial in the health care setting. Finding the right way to communicate with other staff members will keep an open communication channel with everyone. Which in return make other staff members feel respected and provide a much better work environment and the best quality of care for the patient. Now I will go over the scenarios from Checkpoint 8-4 and my own personal experience at work. Scenario number one, is about Robin, a psychiatric nurse that expressed aggressive communication. That led to Rashed to respond passive, by planning to be passive-aggressive with robin in the future when he would have an opportunity. Robin way of speaking to rashed in a firmed and raised voice, only made rashed feel hurt, angry and revengeful toward robin. The fact that rashed needed his job kept him quite but did not stop him from thinking of revenge towards the future with robin. This type of passive communication does not solve and problems are not solved. It might even become less cooperative during work. Rashed even stated that maybe he would not do anything unless he told to do so. Which in return can only mean that the nurse will end of doing more work unless he asked for help that he needs. Scenario number two, Pamela a school nurse was using nonassertive communication. When in doubt about anything communication is the best way to clear up anything. By taking matters into her own hands know she created double the work and in return increased her stress by retesting everyone. A nonassertive person when try to delegate end up doing more work. By not approaching Bridget regarding her concerns, she became a passive person and did not say anything due to the concern of displeasing others. Nonassertive behavior can also cause, anger, confusion and irritation to others. Nurses can sometime feel overworked because they are passive and accommodates others and in return have a poor functioning team. Scenario Number three, Rosa was a manager of the ambulatory care surgical center that was using assertive communication. Mabel one of the surgical technicians used aggressive communication with Rosa. Rosa was very forward about wanted to work together as a team to solve problems for the best quality care for the patient. Rosa used aggressive communication when she told Mabel that she was the granddaughter of the chairmen of the board  and would get her head served in a platter. Mabel expressive words only showed that she had anger, annoyed, stressed, angry and impatient. Knowing how to express your needs in a positive manner can help relate and resolve any problem that arises. Using assertive communication is a good way to be confident, addresses problem without belittling oneself and other staff members. Improving the way we express ourselves can have a positive effect and outcome at work with better harmony. My Scenario, took place around 8 years ago when I started working a unit called â€Å"1202†, surgical and nonsurgical unit. Six trauma beds and six nontrauma beds. We all worked pretty much in a team. Took report on all patients in order to know what was going on with every patient in case anyone needed help or anyone of us took a break or lunch break. We also rotated being charge nurse. And like always had to divide that patients according to severity and try to balance out the possible admits. Being in charge meant that we were in indirect way responsible for the patients and would be the last one to get the admit in case we had to jum p in and lend a helping hand. It was finally my turn to be in charge and of course that typical older nurse with more years always companied about having to many hard patients and need to trade off one of his patients and when it came to his admit asked if I could take it and he would take the next one. I found myself being nonassertive and took the admit in order to keep peace and not hear him nagging all night. To make the story short the following patient he took but was taken to the operating room, two patients got discharged and only left him with two stable patients. While I was still in charge, ended up with six patients and no discharges. And still responsible for overseeing everyone else’s job. At the end of the day I was tired, mad and overwhelmed. All this gave great experiences to be more assertive in a positive way, explain my rational for how I divided the assignment and offered as much help as needed in order to work as a team for the best patient care. Effective communication is very important not only for the staff members but also with the patient and family member in order to achieve a positive outcome for the patient and for a positive work environment with stress free workplace. Always keep in mind that no matter how much effective communication we might have we are bond to run into conflicts, it just the way we decide to delegate and resolve problems for a positive environment. Aggressive communication can only  bring more problems instead of solving them. Assertive communication is always the best way to go because we show confident, respect and ability to work in a stress free workplace. Reference Hansten, R., Jackson, M. (2009). Clinical delegation skills: A handbook for professional practice. Jones and Bartlett Learning, 4(4th), 279-292.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

kants moral theory :: essays research papers

Kant ¡Ã‚ ¯s Moral Theory   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I think Kant ¡Ã‚ ¯s Moral theory is one complement to the Utilitarianism because one deficit of Utilitarianism is it is sometimes impossible to foresee the consequences, and Kant brought up that  ¡Ã‚ °the consequences of our acts are not always in our control and things do not always turn out as we want ¡Ã‚ ±. However, he believed that we can control our motives, and the  ¡Ã‚ °motive to do what is right ¡Ã‚ ± gives an act its moral worth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The second belief Kant holds is  ¡Ã‚ °people ought not to be used, but ought to be regarded as having the highest intrinsic value ¡Ã‚ ±. My understanding here is Kant believe that the intrinsic value of an act determines what is morally right or morally wrong. The intrinsic value always accompanies the act, for example, if A is intrinsic to B, then it is no accident that B exhibits A.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For actions to have moral worth,  ¡Ã‚ °good will ¡Ã‚ ± and good act (in accordance with duty) are required. Kant believed that the  ¡Ã‚ °good will ¡Ã‚ ± is the right motive. Good will is to will your maxim to be a universal law or universally valid and accepted.  ¡Ã‚ °Having a right intention is to do what is right (or what one believes to be right) just because it is right ¡Ã‚ ±. Kant believed that acts done from the motive of duty are the only ones with moral worth. For example, you borrow money from a friend, and your options, or maxims, are to either return the money, or not to return the money. To return money is of good will, and if you choose this to be your maxim, you are in accordance with duty. Not to return money, if put into a universal law, nobody ever returned the money, and everybody broke their promises, there would be no promises, and the act is not in accordance with duty. So the act of not returning the money has no moral worth and i s morally wrong.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are two different types of imperatives, according to Kant, hypothetical imperative and categorical imperative.  ¡Ã‚ °an imperative is simply a form of statement that tells us to do something ¡Ã‚ ±. Hypothetical imperative is conditional and represents an action that is good and necessary as a means to further results. It can be expressed as  ¡Ã‚ °if I want to  ¡Ã‚ ­, then I ought to  ¡Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ¡Ã‚ ±. For example, if you don ¡Ã‚ ¯t want to get sick, then you ought to wash your hands carefully. kants moral theory :: essays research papers Kant ¡Ã‚ ¯s Moral Theory   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I think Kant ¡Ã‚ ¯s Moral theory is one complement to the Utilitarianism because one deficit of Utilitarianism is it is sometimes impossible to foresee the consequences, and Kant brought up that  ¡Ã‚ °the consequences of our acts are not always in our control and things do not always turn out as we want ¡Ã‚ ±. However, he believed that we can control our motives, and the  ¡Ã‚ °motive to do what is right ¡Ã‚ ± gives an act its moral worth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The second belief Kant holds is  ¡Ã‚ °people ought not to be used, but ought to be regarded as having the highest intrinsic value ¡Ã‚ ±. My understanding here is Kant believe that the intrinsic value of an act determines what is morally right or morally wrong. The intrinsic value always accompanies the act, for example, if A is intrinsic to B, then it is no accident that B exhibits A.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For actions to have moral worth,  ¡Ã‚ °good will ¡Ã‚ ± and good act (in accordance with duty) are required. Kant believed that the  ¡Ã‚ °good will ¡Ã‚ ± is the right motive. Good will is to will your maxim to be a universal law or universally valid and accepted.  ¡Ã‚ °Having a right intention is to do what is right (or what one believes to be right) just because it is right ¡Ã‚ ±. Kant believed that acts done from the motive of duty are the only ones with moral worth. For example, you borrow money from a friend, and your options, or maxims, are to either return the money, or not to return the money. To return money is of good will, and if you choose this to be your maxim, you are in accordance with duty. Not to return money, if put into a universal law, nobody ever returned the money, and everybody broke their promises, there would be no promises, and the act is not in accordance with duty. So the act of not returning the money has no moral worth and i s morally wrong.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are two different types of imperatives, according to Kant, hypothetical imperative and categorical imperative.  ¡Ã‚ °an imperative is simply a form of statement that tells us to do something ¡Ã‚ ±. Hypothetical imperative is conditional and represents an action that is good and necessary as a means to further results. It can be expressed as  ¡Ã‚ °if I want to  ¡Ã‚ ­, then I ought to  ¡Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ¡Ã‚ ±. For example, if you don ¡Ã‚ ¯t want to get sick, then you ought to wash your hands carefully.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Microsoft Versus the Department of Justice Essays -- Computers Microso

Microsoft Versus the Department of Justice In today’s high-tech ultra-fast paced world, there can be no debate as to the importance of personal computers. Personal Computers control virtually every aspect of our daily lives. Businesses, regardless of their size, have local area networks, company Intranets and high-speed wide area networks. Billing, inventory and invoicing would be impossible without help from our Personal Computers. Stocks, bonds and commodities are traded in the markets around the world entirely by computer. The Banking industry relies enormously on Personal Computers for every transaction. Communicating without email, fax transmissions and other forms of computer aided information transfers would be unimaginable. The media would be unable to produce news and information for the masses in the timely manner we know today. Law enforcement agencies, from local police, to field agents of the F.B.I. depend on computer databases for crucial information. Air traffic controllers rely on their computer s to safely land and route thousands of planes into airports around the world everyday. Even the military depends on computers to defend our very own borders and interests. With the important role that Personal Computers serve in society today, is it really a good idea to have one company exclusively control the technology running virtually every aspect of our lives? Ninety percent of all computers sold worldwide are IBM or IBM compatible clones. Microsoft's infamous operating system licensing agreements required all personal computer makers to pay Microsoft a royalty on every computer they manufactured, even when no Microsoft product was loaded on the machine.(Kaphing 1) This forced the Personal Computer makers into only using the Microsoft operating system. They could not choose a different Operating System even if they so desired, because at that time all of the Personal Computer clone manufacturers were small start up companies, having very limited capital. They couldn't afford to pay both Microsoft and another company for a different operating system. In 1994 The United States Justice Department barred Microsoft from engaging in this sort of extortion, but it was already too late, the Operating System monopoly had been realized. After the 1994 decision, Microsoft resorted to a new anti-competitive tactic. Yet another ... ... and largely as a result of that barrier, Microsoft’s customers lack a commercially viable alternative to Windows. Microsoft possesses a dominant, persistent, and increasing share of the world-wide market PC operating systems. Every year for the last decade, Microsoft’s share of the market for Intel-compatible PC operating systems has stood above ninety percent. For the last couple of years the figure has been at least ninety-five percent, and analysts project that the share will climb even higher over the next few years. Even if Apple’s Mac Operating System were included in the relevant market, Microsoft’s share would still stand well above eighty percent. It was proven in court that many of the tactics that Microsoft has employed have also harmed consumers indirectly by unjustifiably distorting competition. The actions that Microsoft took against Navigator hobbled a form of innovation that had shown the potential to depress the applications barrier to entry sufficiently to enable other firms to compete effectively against Microsoft in the market for PC operating systems. That competition would have conduced to consumer choice and nurtured innovation.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection at the Molecular Level Research Paper Virology 24 November 2008 Abstract Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread and causes significant disease in humans. The structure, epidemiology, pathogensis and immune response are examined in this review, as well as specific ways to reduce and eliminate pathology and related diseases. The virus naturally infects mucosal areas and begins the search for its target host cell. Upon binding to the host cell membrane via teams of glycoproteins, the virion is then phagocytosed.Soon the nucleus is seized and all regular host cell mechanisms are shut off. Replication of HSV-1 is specific encoding immediate early, early and late genes. Once the virus replication process is complete the virus exits epithelial cells near the site of infection through a process known as cell lysis. Sensory neurons are the specific target of HSV-1, where it can then travel to the trigeminal ganglia (TG) stoma via neur onal microtubular networks. Both innate and adaptive immune systems respond to the infection with various antibodies, interleukins and interferons.Once the virion reaches the nervous system, the immune responses are unable to detect it although they try to contain it as best they can. HSV-1 enters a latent stage, usually via latent associated transcripts, not causing pathogenesis but unable to fight off by means of the host immune system. Following a stressful situation or similarly UV activation, HSV-1 travels back down nerve fibers to re-infect cells near the original site of infection. This process is known to continue throughout the lifespan of the infected individual, normally without fatalities.When the host immune response is unable to contain the virus in the TG, several associated diseases such as encephalitis and keratits result. Genes involved with virus replication and host genes, to eliminate the virus, have been maneuvered to cause reverse effects and are currently use d as antivirals. Although no vaccine has been approved for use against HSV-1, various attempts have been made. This research paper defines the virus infection at a molecular level as well as demonstrates modifications of the virus genes to cause reverse effects and investigates just a few of the diseases connected with HSV-1.Introduction Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2 are well known members of the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, which cause lifelong, latent infection in humans. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) typically remains the cause of cold sores, gingivostomatitis, and skin lesions in the orofacial area, as well as many rare but fatal conditions (1). Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is primarily associated with genital area infection. Worldwide, approximately one third of people display clinical manifestations of HSV-1 infection (2).HSV-1 is neurotropic, infecting multiple cell types but establishing latency in the trigeminal ganglia (TG). HSV-1 reactivates, in response to certain stimuli such as emotional or physical stress or UV light, and is transported along nerve fibers to mucosal or cutaneous regions (1). Infected cells show signs of the nucleus changing shape and nucleolus displacement with a formation of multinucleated giant cells. Cells degenerate, lyse and vesicles of fluid containing the virus locate between the epidermis and dermal layer of the skin forming a lesion (2).Although HSV-1 infects a large percentage of the population, few actually show symptoms of disease. HSV Structure and Genome HSV-1 is an enveloped double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus consisting of four elements. First, an outer envelope with glycoprotein spikes on its surface. Second, a tegument layer including several viral proteins important during HSV-1 infection. Third, an iscosahedral capsid surrounding the last compartment, the electron opaque core containing the dsDNA genome wrapped as a spool. The envelope is made up of 13 different viral g lycoproteins embedded in a lipid bilayer.The viral genome of 152 kb, encode the majority of the proteins of the mature virion. Covalently linked L (long) and S (short) components are broken down into unique long (Ul), flanked by ab and b’a’ repeated segments, and unique short (Us), flanked by ac and c’a’ repeated segments. Homologous recombination between terminal repeats results in four linear isomers at equimolar concentrations (see figure 1). All four isomers, including P (prototype), IL (inversion of the L component), IS (inversion of the S component) and ISL (inversion of both the S and the L component), encode 90 unique transcription genes essential for viral replication (3).HSV Replication Infection is first initialted by the attachment to the host cell glucosaminoglycans, usually heparin sulphate and chondroiton sulphate, with viral glycoprotein C (gC). This bond results in at least five glycoprtoeins, gB, gC, gD, gH and gL, binding to other cell surface receptors, such as Herpesvirus entry mediator or nectin 1? or ? (4). Fusion of the viral envelope follows, and the de-enveloped tegument capsid is transported to the nuclear pores via the microtubular network, where DNA is released into the nucleus.Nuclear pore complex accepts the viral DNA from the capsid, minimizing the diffusion of DNA to the cytoplasm, and the transfer is completed by nuclear pore proteins (5). The viral genome circularizes upon entering the nucleus, and transcription of the five immediate early genes (IE) is done by the host RNA polymerase II. Among the IE genes are ICP0, ICP4, ICP22, ICP27 and ICP47. Host transcription, RNA splicing and transport are inhibited during replication, known as host cell shut off. Early (E) viral genes encode enzymes in nucleotide metabolism and viral DNA replication and require the presence of IE genes.Viral E gene products, including viral DNA polymerase, single-stranded DNA-binding protein, origin binding protein and DNA helicase-primase, assemble on the parental viral DNA and start DNA synthesis in replication compartments. Three DNA replication origins bind by viral origin-binding protein, separate the DNA strands and initiate viral DNA synthesis. Expression of the late (L) genes begins and produces structural components of the virion. Capsid assembly occurs in the cytoplasm and the associated proteins are then transported to the nucleus.Progeny DNA concatamers are cleaved into monomers and are inserted into the capsid. Cleavage and packing of HSV-1 genome requires two cis-acting elements, pac1 and pac2. Next the nucleocapsid matures and egress by passing through the Golgi apparatus with the tegument layer and the virion envelope. (3) HSV Latency After infection of the mucosa or epithelial abrasion, HSV-1 enters sensory neurons near the site of infection and the tegument and nucleocapsid travel by retrograde axonal transport to cell neuronal soma releasing viral DNA and VP16, when the virus may en ter lytic replication or the latent state.Lytic replication results in neuronal cell death as described above. (2,3) During latency the genome circularizes and enters a heavily chromatinated state where no infectious virus is produced and the majority of viral gene expression is silenced. Latency associated transcripts (LAT), mRNA genes, are the only transcripts found in latent neurons (6). Expression of LATs is not absolutely required for maintenance of latency. Reactivation triggers the virus to be transported in the opposite direction, antrograde, and re-infection occurs at the initial site of infection. HSV and the Immune SystemThe immune response to HSV-1 includes both innate and adaptive immune responses. Innate immunity is the first line of defense including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and various cytokines and complement proteins. Initial response involves secreted proteins, such as defensins and complement proteins. Complement proteins bind HSV antigens resulting in the cleavage of complement molecules. This, followed by the formation of the membrane attack complex, destroys the virus. HSV gC blocks the complement cascade, counteracting the effects of complement.The adaptive immune response is triggered with B cell memory enhanced in response to the virus. An antiviral state is induced by infected epithelial cells and resident interferon producing cells (IPCs), secreting interferon ? and ? , priming the surrounding cells for apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factors ? (TNF-? ) is also produced by IPCs and acts as an autocrine signal stimulating differentiation of ICPs to dendritic cells. They can travel to the lymph nodes to stimulate CD4+ T cells to produce IFN-? and interleukin 10 (IL-10). After infection and replication, HSV-1 destroys infected cells and travels to sensory neurons.Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, NK and TCR+ T cells infiltrate the TG, control the infection and prevent the spread of the virus to rear by cells, including the brain. The adaptive immune response is driven by the innate immune response. Antigen presenting cells migrate from the site of infection to the regional lymph node to present CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B cells. Deficient complement cascades leads to less vigorous memory response to HSV-1. Antibodies against gD and the gH-gL complex are found to protect against HSV-1 and are observed as cross reactive to other strains of HSV.Macrophages engulf viral proteins and cell particles from lysed cells and also secrete cytokines favoring the T helper (Th) cell CD4+ response. CD8+ cytoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are produced and they react with epitopes displayed on infected cells, which are then targeted for apoptosis. See figure 2. The IE protein ICP 27 contains potent CTL epitopes. The efficacy of gB to induce a CTL response suggests gB is the immunodominant antigen of HSV-1. (2) Beneficial Modifications of Genes Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and Relative As sociated DiseasesOccasionally the immune system is unable to prevent HSV-1 from spreading to surrounding structures such as the eye. Ocular HSV-1 infection is termed herpetic keratitis, tissue destruction of the eye, and is currently treated with trifluridine or valacyclovir to inhibit HSV-1 DNA polymerase and terminate synthesis of the sugar backbone of viral DNA. The current antiviral compounds require phosphorylation by the infected cell, meaning the antiviral activity cannot take place until the infection has progressed to the point where specific viral thymidine kinase is synthesized.A new idea involves helicase-primase inhibitors acting to prevent the unwinding of the double-stranded DNA and the initiation of the new strand synthesis necessary for viral production. Kleymann et al. found a compound, BAY 57-1293, more potent and more effective than valacyclovir and unassociated with systemic toxicity to initiate the described mechanism. (7) A similar study explored the lesion as sociated with the tissue destruction of the cornea, specifically angiogenesis of stromal keratits (SK).The fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), a molecule known to stimulate cell growth to contribute to wound healing, was targeted to observe the antiviral activity via its effect on HSV-1 cell entry. FGF-2 inhibits HSV-1 from binding to heparin sulfate, thus hindering entrance into the host cell. Results of this study suggest severity and clinical SK could be significantly diminished by daily treatment of lesions with FGF-2 protein, due to accelerated epithelial wound healing. (8) Similarly, HSV-1 can surpass the immune response and travel to the brain. HSV-1 encephalitis is the most devastating consequence of HSV and the most ommon cause of fetal encephalitis. Early growth response 1 (Erg-1) is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in neural tissue, and is induced during stress. It regulates growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis and development. Erg-1 is known to regulate several vi ral genes, including LATs, and is inducible by viral proteins. Erg-1 increases viral replication in infected cells and mortality in infected mice. Knockout of Erg-1 expression was shown to reduce the mortality by decreasing the viral loads to tissues in a study conducted by Shis-Heng Chen et al. 9) It has been demonstrated HSV-1 can induce increased activity of central norepinephrine or serotonin neurons, by activating the cell bodies located in the brain stem, following encephalitis. Increased brain stem activity of these neurotransmitters can impair glucocorticoids (GC) negative feedback receptors, activating cytokines IL-1 and TNF? , reducing the binding capacity of said GC receptors. Impaired control of the GC negative feedback regulation upon the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis has been suggested as an important aspect in major depression. (10)Thrombin is a result of the generation of sequential proteolytic enzymes activating circular precursor enzymes and cofactors for bloo d clotting. HSV-1, HSV-2 and cytomegalovirus have been shown to avoid cellular control of coagulation initiation through the constitutive expression of procoagulant phospholipids and tissue factor. This allows the unregulated generation of thrombin because tissue factor can bind ciruculating factor VIIa, forming a cofactor-enzyme complex directly on the virus. ‘Tenase’ activity has been credited to HSV-1 encoded gC, which accelerates the FVIIa-dependent activation of FX.FXa associates with its cofactor V to convert prothrombin to thrombin. Assembly of FX and FV leading to thrombin generation has been demonstrated on the virus surface. Herpes virus genomic material has been associated with atherosclerosis plaque, thrombosis and atherosclerosis due to the unregulated production of thrombin. (11) It is well known NK cells aid in the fight against HSV-1 infection. Severe herpetic infections have been seen in NK -deficient patients, as well as early infiltrations of herpetic lesions by NK cells. This due to damage of HLA class 1 expression by HSV-1 and the lysis of HSV-1 infected targets by NK cells.E. Estefania et al. presented a study suggesting clinical symptoms of HSV-1 infection being more likely to happen among humans expressing the NK cell receptors KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2. The genes encoding the receptors appear to increase the risk of recurrent infection, where the lack of the receptors is shown to protect from the disease. (1) Conclusion HSV-1 can cause severe recurrent disease in humans and establish lifelong infection in their hosts. Several antiviral approaches have been considered to counteract the effects of HSV-1 throughout the body yet no vaccine, to cure the infection from its host, has been accepted.Acyclovir, and its ester derivative valacyclovir, as well as penciclovir and its prodrug famciclovir, are the latest approved antiviral medications to battle HSV-1 infection. Several other strategies are currently under investigation such as potential therapeutic vaccines, cidofovir, and aqueous extracts in Africa. Past attempts of vaccines have utilized viral vectors, DNA vaccination, recombinant bacteria, cytokines to manipulate the immune response, novel adjuvants, innovative delivery systems and different routes of inoculation. Most of which have been successful in lab mice but none have been approved for human use.Therapeutic vaccines target symptomatic individuals, using DNA vaccines encoding various cytokines used to intentionally bias the immune system toward Th1 or Th2 responses. Different boosts with different cytokine adjuvants may be used to induce proper immune response. (2) Extracts from the eastern cape of Africa, Aloe ferox and Withania somnifera, confirmed morphological changes indicative of cytopathic effects that retard the replication and spread of HSV-1. (12) Furthermore, a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient developed mucosal HSV-1 infection, and while under acyclovir treatment, later show ed resistance to the antiviral.After developing hemorrhagic cystitis due to polyomavirus BK, cidofovir was prescribed and the patient profited from the broad spectrum anti-DNA virus activity with the disappearance of HSV-1 lesions. (13) In conclusion, as described above the mechanisms by which HSV-1 hijacks and hides out in its host, have been studied to great detail and are routinely manipulated. The particularly complex structure, as well as detailed means by which each gene in the large genome is activated and carries out its genes products, intrigue many scientists which continue to investigate and attempt a formidable vaccine against the virus.Studies among mice have proven effective, although HSV-1 is a very host specific infection, thus making trials of acceptable anitvirals and vaccines extremely difficult. The only slightly acceptable element of HSV-1 infection is, in rare cases where no reoccurrences is shown, and moreover there are many instances of asymptomatic carriers. Devastating incidence such as transferring HSV-1 to a neonate during delivery and schizophrenics showing decreased prefrontal grey matter due to HSV-1, are just a pinch of the terrifying effects of this virus, remaining in host TG until a stressful situation comes along. 14,15) Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 Genome (Figure 1) 00 Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection (Figure 2) Works Cited 1. )Estefania, E, et al. â€Å"Influence of KIR gene diversity on the course of HSV-1 infection: resistance to the disease is associated with the absence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2. † Tissue Antigens 70. 1 (July 2007): 34-41. MEDLINE. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 19 Nov. 2008 . 2. )Ferenczy, Michael W. â€Å"Prophylactic Vaccine Strategies and the Potential of Therapeutic Vaccines Against Herpes Simplex Virus. † Current Pharmaceutical Design 13. 9 July 2007): 1975-1988. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 19 Nov. 2008 . 3. )S hen, Y, and J Nemunaitis.. â€Å"Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for cancer treatment. † Cancer Gene Therapy 13. 11 (07 Nov. 2006): 975-992. MEDLINE. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 19 Nov. 2008 . 4. )Clement, Christian, et al. â€Å"A novel role for phagocytosis-like uptake in herpes simplex virus entry. † Journal of Cell Biology 174. 7 (25 Sep. 2006): 1009-1021. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 4 Sep. 2008 . 5. )Newcomb, William W, Frank P Booy, and Jay C Brown. â€Å"Uncoating the herpes simplex virus genome. † Journal Of Molecular Biology 370. 4 (20 July 2007): 633-642. MEDLINE. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 3 Sep. 2008 . 6. )Ramachandran, Srividya, and Paul R Kinchington.. â€Å"Potential prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HSV infections. † Current Pharmaceutical Design 13. 19 (2007): 1965-1973. MEDLINE. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 22 Nov. 2008 . 7. )Kaufman, Herbert E, et al. Efficacy of a helicase-primase inhibitor in animal models of ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. † Journal Of Ocular Pharmacology And Therapeutics: The Official Journal Of The Association For Ocular Pharmacology And Therapeutics 24. 1 (Feb. 2008): 34-42. MEDLINE. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 19 Nov. 2008 . 8. )Kim, Bumseok, et al. â€Å"Application of FGF-2 to Modulate Herpetic Stromal Keratitis. † Current Eye Research 31. 12 (Dec. 2006): 1021-1028. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 19 Nov. 2008 . 9. )Chen S, Yao H, Chen I, Shieh B, Li C, Chen S.Suppression of transcription factor early growth response 1 reduces herpes simplex virus lethality in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation [serial online]. October 2008;118(10):3470-3477. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 22, 2008. 10. )Bener, Dafna, et al. â€Å"Gl ucocorticoid Resistance following Herpes Simplex-1 Infection: Role of Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptors. † Neuroendocrinology 85. 4 (Apr. 2007): 207-215. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 19 Nov. 2008 . 11. )Thrombin paper 12. )Kambizi, L. , et al. Anti-viral effects of aqueous extracts of Aloe Xerox and Withania somnifera on herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture. † South African Journal of Science 103. 9/10 (Sep. 2007): 359-360. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 10 Sep. 2008 . 13. )Andrei, G, et al. â€Å"Dual infection with polyomavirus BK and acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus successfully treated with cidofovir in a bone marrow transplant recipient. † Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal Of The Transplantation Society 9. 2 (June 2007): 126-131. MEDLINE. EBSCO. Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 19 Nov. 2008 . 14. )Brown, Elizabeth L. , et al. â€Å"Effect of maternal herpes simplex virus (HSV) serostatus and HSV type on risk of neonatal herpes. † Acta Obstetricia & Gynecologica Scandinavica 86. 5 (May 2007): 523-529. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 17 Sep. 2008 . 15. )Prasad, K. M. R. , et al. â€Å"Brain morphological changes associated with exposure to HSV1 in first-episode schizophrenia. † Molecular Psychiatry 12. 1 (Jan. 2007): 105-113. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 1 Oct. 2008 .